Nitrous oxide, N 2 0, nitric oxide, NO, nitrogen trioxide, N203, nitrogen peroxide, N02, and nitrogen pentoxide, N205, whilst three oxyacids of nitrogen are known: hyponitrous acid, H2N202, nitrous acid, HN02, and nitric acid, HNO 3 (q.v.).
Nitrogen pentoxide, N 2 O 5, was first obtained in 1849 by H.
Three oxides of columbium are certainly known, namely the dioxide, Cb202, the tetroxide, Cb 2 0 4, and the pentoxide, Cb 2 0 5, whilst a fourth oxide, columbium trioxide, Cb203, has been described by E.
It burns readily in air, and is converted into the pentoxide when fused with acid potassium sulphate.
Tetroxide, Cb204, is obtained as a black powder when the pentoxide is heated to a high temperature in a current of hydrogen.
Columbium pentachloride, CbC1 5, is obtained in yellow needles when a mixture of the pentoxide and sugar charcoal is heated in a current of air-free chlorine.
Columbium pentafluoride, CbF5, is obtained when the pentoxide is dissolved in hydrofluoric acid.
The oxyfluoride, CbOF 3, results when a mixture of the pentoxide and fluorspar is heated in a current of hydrochloric acid.
Columbium oxysulphide, CbOS 3, is obtained as a dark bronze coloured powder when the pentoxide is heated to a white heat in a current of carbon bisulphide vapour; or by gently heating the oxychloride in a current of sulphuretted hydrogen.
It burns when heated in air, forming the pentoxide and sulphur dioxide.
It may be prepared by fusion of ortho-toluene sulphonic acid with potash; by the action of phosphorus pentoxide on carvacrol; or by the action of zinc chloride on camphor.
When heated with phosphorus pentoxide it yields cyanogen.
It is also formed by oxidizing bismuth trioxide suspended in caustic potash with chlorine, the pentoxide being formed simultaneously; oxidation and potassium ferricyanide simply gives the tetroxide (Hauser and Vanino, Zeit.
Bismuth pentoxide, B12C,, is obtained by heating bismuthic acid, HBiO 3, to 130° C.; this acid (in the form of its salts) being the product of the continued oxidation of an alkaline solution of bismuth trioxide.
Moissan obtained a carbon-bearing metal by fusing the pentoxide with carbon in the electric furnace.
Tantalum tetroxide, Ta 2 0 4, is a porous dark grey mass harder than glass, and is obtained by reducing the pentoxide with magnesium.
It is unaffected by any acid or mixture of acids, but burns to the pentoxide when heated.
Tantalum pentoxide, Ta205, is a white amorphous infusible powder, or it may be crystallized by strongly heating, or by fusing with boron trioxide or microcosmic salt.
Tantalum pentachloride, TaC1 5, is obtained as light yellow needles by heating a mixture of the pentoxide and carbon in a current of chlorine.
Sahlbom (Ber., 1906, 39, p. 2600) obtained 179.8 (H =1) by converting the metal into pentoxide at a dull red heat.
Orthophosphoric acid, H3P04, a tribasic acid, is obtained by boiling a solution of the pentoxide in water; by oxidizing, red phosphorus with nitric acid, or yellow phosphorus under the surface of water by bromine or iodine; and also by decomposing a mineral phosphate with sulphuric acid.
The acid is formed by dissolving phosphorus pentoxide in cold water, or by strongly heating orthophosphoric acid.
Microcosmic salt: MH 2 PO 4 = MP0 3 +H 2 0, (NH 4) NaHPO 4 = NaP03+NH3+H20; they may also be obtained by acting with phosphorus pentoxide on trimetallic orthophosphates: Na3P04+P205 = 3NaP0 3.
The olefines may be synthetically prepared by eliminating water from the alcohols of the general formula CnH2n+1 OH, using sulphuric acid or zinc chloride generally as the dehydrating agent, although phosphorus pentoxide, syrupy phosphoric acid and anhydrous oxalic acid may frequently be substituted.
Carbon suboxide, C302, is formed by the action of phosphorus pentoxide on ethyl malonate (0.
The trichloride, IC1 31 results from the action of excess of chlorine on iodine, or from iodic acid and hydrochloric acid, or by heating iodine pentoxide with phosphorus pentachloride.
Iodine Pentoxide, 1205, the best-known oxide, is obtained as a white crystalline solid by heating iodic acid to 170° C.; it is easily soluble in water, combining with the water to regenerate iodic acid; and when heated to 300° C. it breaks up into its constituent elements.
Iodic Acid, H10 3, can be prepared by dissolving iodine pentoxide in water; by boiling iodine with fuming nitric acid, 61+10HN03= 6H10 3 +10N0+2H 2 O; by decomposing barium iodate with the calculated quantity of sulphuric acid, previously diluted with water, or by suspending iodine in water and passing in chlorine, 12+5C12+ 6H 2 0=2H10 3 +10HC1.
It is a colourless, crystalline, deliquescent solid which melts at 135° C., and at 140° C. is completely decomposed into iodine pentoxide, water and oxygen.
CH:C(CH 3) 2, forms yellow crystals which melt at 28° C. and boil at 197.2° C. When heated with phosphorus pentoxide it yields acetone, water and some pseudocumene.
Benzoyl chloride, C 6 H S 0001, is formed by distilling a mixture of phosphorus pentachloride and benzoic acid; by the action of chlorine on benzaldehyde, or by passing a stream of hydrochloric acid gas over a mixture of benzoic acid and phosphorus pentoxide heated to 200°C. (C. Friedel, Ben.
Phosphorus combines directly with the metal to form W3P4; another phosphide, W2P, results on igniting a mixture of phosphorus pentoxide and tungsten.
On the other hand the stability of the known oxygen compounds increases with the atomic weight, thus iodine pentoxide is, at ordinary temperatures, a well-defined crystalline solid, which is only decomposed on heating strongly, whilst chlorine monoxide, chlorine peroxide, and chlorine heptoxide are very unstable, even at ordinary temperatures, decomposing at the slightest shock.
Nitric acid oxidizes antimony either to the trioxide Sb 4 0 6 or the pentoxide Sb 2 0 5, the product obtained depending on the temperature and concentration of the acid.
There are three known oxides of antimony, the trioxide Sb406 which is capable of combining with both acids and bases to form salts, the tetroxide Sb204 and the pentoxide Sb205.
Antimony pentoxide is obtained by repeatedly evaporating antimony with nitric acid and heating the resulting antimonic acid to a temperature not above 275° C.; by heating antimony with red mercuric oxide until the mass becomes yellow (J.
It is a white powder almost insoluble in water and nitric acid, and when heated, is first converted into metantimonic acid, HSbO 3, and then into the pentoxide Sb205.
Young, bromine, when dried over sulphuric acid, boils at 57.65° C., and when dried over phosphorus pentoxide, boils at 58.85° C. (under a pressure of 755.8 mm.), forming a deep red vapour, which exerts an irritating and directly poisonous action on the respiratory organs.
At the temperature of the furnace the silica (sand) attacks the calcium phosphate, forming silicate, and setting free phosphorus pentoxide, which is attacked by the carbon, forming phosphorus and carbon monoxide.
The element is highly inflammable, taking fire in air at 34° and burning with a bright white flame and forming dense white clouds of the pentoxide; in perfectly dry air or oxygen, however, it may be distilled unchanged, H.
It oxidizes on exposure to air to the pentoxide, and with a brilliant inflammation when thrown into oxygen at 50 0 _60°.
Sulphur trioxide and sulphuric acid oxidize phosphorus oxide, giving the pentoxide and sulphur dioxide, whilst sulphur chloride, S 2 C1 2, gives phosphoryl and thiophosphoryl chlorides, free sulphur and sulphur dioxide.
Phosphoric oxide, or phosphorus pentoxide, P4010, formed when phosphorus is burned in an excess of air or oxygen, or from dry phosphorus and oxygen at atmospheric pressure (Jungfleisch, loc. cit.), was examined by Boyle and named " flowers of phosphorus " by Marggraf in 1740.
The first is formed when 30% hydrogen peroxide reacts with phosphorus pentoxide or metaor pyrophosphoric acids at low temperatures and the mixture diluted with ice-cold water.
Phosphoryl trifluoride, POF3, may be obtained by exploding 2 volumes of phosphorus trifluoride with 1 volume of oxygen (Moissan, 1886); by heating 2 parts of finely-divided cryolite and 3 parts of phosphorus pentoxide (Thorpe and Hambly, Jour.
Phosphoryl trichloride or phosphorus oxychloride, POC1 3, corresponding to phosphoric acid, (HO) 3 P0, discovered in 1847 by Wurtz, may be produced by the action of many substances containing hydroxy groups on the pentachloride; from the trichloride and potassium chlorate; by leaving phosphorus pentoxide in contact with hydrochloric acid: 2P 2 0 5 +3HC1= POC13+3HP03; or by heating the pentachloride and pentoxide under pressure: 3PC15+ P205= 5POC1 3.
Since conhydrine is dehydrated by phosphorus pentoxide into a mixture of a and f3 coniceines, it may be considered an oxyconine.
This is recrystallized and roasted to vanadium pentoxide, which is then suspended in water into which ammonia is passed, when ammonium metavanadate is again formed and may be purified by recrystallization.
In a somewhat impure condition it may be obtained by the reduction of vanadium pentoxide with a mixture of the rare earth metals which are obtained by reduction of the waste oxides formed in the manufacture of thoria (Weiss and Aichel, Ann., 1904, 337, p..
It is not volatilized even when heated to redness in a current of hydrogen, and it burns readily to the pentoxide when heated in oxygen.
Vanadium may be detected by converting it into the pentoxide, which on passing sulphuretted hydrogen through its acid solution becomes reduced to the dioxide, the solution at the same time becoming lavender blue in colour; or if zinc be used as a reducing agent, the solution becomes at first green and ultimately blue.
The trioxide, V 2 0 3, is formed when the pentoxide is reduced at a red heat in a current of hydrogen, or by the action of oxalic acid on ammonium metavanadate.
The tetroxide, V204, results when the pentoxide is heated with dry oxalic acid and the resulting mixture of the triand pentoxide is warmed in the absence of air, or when the pentoxide is reduced by sulphur dioxide.
The pentoxide, V205, is obtained when ammonium metavanadate is strongly heated, on calcining the sulphide, or by the decomposition of vanadyl trichloride with water.
Of the salts of these acids, those of the orthoand pyro-acids are the least stable, the orthovanadates being obtained on fusion of vanadium pentoxide with an alkaline carbonate.
Ammonium metavanadate is obtained when the hydrated vanadium pentoxide is dissolved in excess of ammonia and the solution concentrated.