His divergencies from the Pentateuchal code gave rise to serious doubts, but, after prolonged study, the discrepancies were explained, and the book was finally canonized (Shah.
In like manner the special ritual at the temple prescribed for the Sabbath by the Pentateuchal law was not regarded as any part of the hallowing of the sacred day; on the contrary, the rule was that, in this regard, "Sabbath was not kept in the sanctuary."
Even if it could be shown that the Pentateuchal regulations were universally observed in Israel from Mosaic times, it would not preclude a certain indebtedness to Babylonia for at least the germ of the institution.
A few years later (about 600) the two Pentateuchal documents J and E were woven together, the books of Kings were compiled, the book of Habakkuk and parts of the Proverbs were written.
At any rate the Samaritans have, throughout their history, observed the Passover with all its Pentateuchal ceremonial and still observe it down to the present day.
"It is generally recognized that this chapter holds quite an isolated place in the Pentateuchal history; it is the only passage which presents Abraham in the character of a warrior, and connects him with historical names and political movements, and there are no clear marks by which it can be assigned to any one of the documents of which Genesis is made up. Thus, while one school of interpreters finds in the chapter the earliest fragment of the political history of western Asia, some even holding with Ewald that the narrative is probably based on old Canaanite records, other critics, as Noldeke, regard the whole as unhistorical and comparatively late in origin.
Thus Philo had, in his life of Moses, allegorized the Pentateuchal narratives so as to represent him as mediator, saviour, intercessor of his people, the one great organ of revelation, and the soul's guide from the false lower world into the upper true one.
His Pentateuchal criticism is limited by the tradition of Mosaic authorship: but even within these limits he achieves much.
Prof. Sayce travels farther back, it is true, but on critical lines: he abandons the Pentateuchal criticism of the 10th century, to reoccupy the critical position of Hobbes, Spinoza and Simon in the 17th century - whether reasonably or not must here be left an open question.
For example, the recent discovery of the Code of Khammurabi, which contains some remarkable resemblances to the Pentateuchal codes, raises the question of the relation of Hebrew to Babylonian law.
2 None of these passages belong to the very oldest thread of Pentateuchal story, and similarly Deborah is called prophetess only in the later account (Judg.
It was only in so far as the community of faith still possessed certain external features of nationality that postexile prophecy was possible at all, and very soon the care of the national or quasi-national aspects of religion passed altogether out of their hands into those of the scribes, of whom Ezekiel was the first father, and whose Torah was not the living word of prophecy but the Pentateuchal code.
The Pentateuchal law (Lev.
The pentateuchal laws relating to women belong to the country rather than to town life (note the picture of feminine luxury in Isa.
In general the pentateuchal legislation as a whole presupposes an undeveloped state of society, and would have been inadequate if not partly obsolete or unintelligible during the monarchies.5 But more elaborate legal usages had long been known outside Palestine, and, to judge from the Talmud and the Syrian lawcode (c. 5th century A.D.), long prevailed.
The pentateuchal legislation as a whole is placed at the very beginning of Israelite national history.
Pentateuchal law is relatively unprogressive, it is marked by a characteristic simplicity, and by a spirit of reform, and the persisting primitive social conditions implied do not harmonize with other internal and external data.
There is no a priori reason why other legal enactments should not have been current when the compilation was first made; the Pentateuchal legislation is incomplete, and covers only a small part of the affairs of life in which legal decisions 1 For the sake of convenience Ben (" son ") and Rabbi are, as usual, abbreviated to b.
This book was long the storm-centre of Pentateuchal criticism, orthodox scholars boldly asserting that any who questioned its Mosaic authorship reduced it to the level of a pious fraud.