He associated himself closely with his greater brother, the grand pensionary, and supported him throughout his career with great ability and vigour.
At the dissolution of the pensionary parliament, he was, in the new elections, returned for Bedfordshire.
The statesgeneral under the skilful management of the Grand Pensionary, John de Witt, retaliated by sending de Ruyter from the Mediterranean, where he was cruising against the Barbary pirates, to follow Holmes.
As he continued to preach the reformed doctrines in opposition to the royal ordinance, he was obliged to leave the country and retired to Holland, where he was well received and appointed one of the pensionary ministers of Gouda.
PENSIONARY, a name given to the leading functionary and legal adviser of the principal town corporations of Holland, because they received a salary, or pension.
The pensionary conducted the legal business of the town, and was the secretary of the town council and its representative and spokesman at the meetings of the Provincial States.
The post of pensionary was permanent and his influence was great.
In the States of the province of Holland pensionary of the order of nobles (Ridderschap) was the foremost official of that assembly and he was named - until the death of Oldenbarneveldt in 1619 - the land's advocate, or more shortly, the advocate.
After the downfall of Oldenbarneveldt the office of lands'- advocate was abolished, and a new post, tenable for five years only, was erected in its place with the title of Raad-Pensionaris, or Pensionary of the Council, usually called by English writers.
Had to be content with lessened powers, but in the stadtholderless regime1650-1672the grand pensionary became even more influential than Oldenbarneveldt himself, since there was no prince of Orange filling the offices of stadtholder, and of admiral and captain-general of the Union.
From1653-1672John de Witt, re-elected twice, made the name of grand pensionary of Holland for ever famous during the time of the wars with England.
At fifteen Grotius accompanied Count Justin of Nassau, and the grand pensionary J.
Grotius, when he was only thirty, was made pensionary of the city of Rotterdam.
This fact determined the stadtholder, Maurice of Nassau, to support the orthodox party - a party to which he inclined the more readily that Olden Barneveldt, the grand pensionary, the man whose uprightness and abilities he most dreaded, sided with the Remonstrants.
The grand pensionary, Olden Barneveldt, the leader of the Remonstrant party, Grotius and Hoogerbeets were arrested, brought to trial, and condemned - Olden Barneveldt to death, and Grotius to imprisonment for life and confiscation of his property.
Two devoted adherents of William of Orange, Paul Buys, advocate of Holland, and Johan van Oldenbarneveldt, pensionary of Rotterdam, were the statesmen who at this difficult juncture took the foremost part in directing the policy of the confederacy.
This important frontier town lying on both sides of the river Meuse was taken by the prince of Orange in the teeth of two relieving armies, Spanish headed by the pensionary Pauw, but with the aid of the diplomatic skill of Aarssens all opposition was overcome.
Pauw was replaced as pensionary by Jacob Cats, and the objections of Richelieu were met and satisfied.
Had indeed been replaced by that of grand pensionary (Raad Pensionaris), but the duties assigned to the office remained the same, the only change of importance being that the advocate was appointed for life, the grand pensionary for a term of five years.
The grand pensionary was nominally the paid servant of the States of Holland, but his functions were such as to permit a man of talent and industry in the stadholderless republic to exercise control in all departments of policy and of government.
The courage and resourcefulness of their youthful leader inspired the people to make heroic sacrifices for their independ- of the ence, but unfortunately such was the revulsion of feeling against the grand pensionary, that he himself and his brother Cornelius were torn in pieces by an infuriated mob at the Hague (loth of August).
He had to contend, like his predecessors, with the perennial hostility of the burgher aristocracy of Amsterdam, and at times with other refractory town councils, but his power in the States during his life was almost autocratic. His task was rendered lighter by the influence and ability of Heinsius, the grand pensionary of Holland, a wise and prudent statesman, whose tact and modera tion in dealing with the details and difficulties of internal administration were conspicuous.
Fortunately there was no break of continuity in the policy of the States, the chief conduct of affairs remaining, until his death in 1720, in the capable and tried hands of the grand pensionary Heinsius, who had at his side a number of exceptionally experienced and wise counsellors - among these Simon van Slingeland, for forty-five years (1680-1725) secretary of the council of state, and afterwards grand pensionary of Holland (1727-1736), and Francis Fagel, who succeeded his father in 1699 as recorder (Griffier) of the States-General, and held that important office for fifty years.
In 1805 the autocratic will of Napoleon Bonaparte imposed upon them a new constitution, and Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck (1765-1825) was made, under the ancient title of grand pensionary, head of the government.
In 1650 he was appointed pensionary of Dort, an office which made him the leader and spokesman of the town's deputation in the state of Holland.
At this time of constitutional crisis such were the eloquence, sagacity and business talents exhibited by the youthful pensionary of Dort that onthe 23rd of July 1653 he was appointed to the office of grand pensionary (Raadpensionaris) of Holland at the age of twenty-eight.
The zeal, industry and courage displayed by the grand pensionary during the course of this fiercely contested naval struggle could scarcely have been surpassed.
On the 4th of August John de Witt resigned the post of grand pensionary that he had held so long and with such distinction.
The pensionary parliament was dissolved in January 1678-1679, and was succeeded by one still more determined in its antipopery spirit.
He settled at Rotterdam as a minister pensionary till 1691, when he was chosen pastor of the Walloon church.
In 1709 the grand pensionary A.
He died at Cairo, a pensionary of the Ottoman government, in 1538.
In September 1778, however, while at Aix-la-Chapelle, he negotiated a plan of a treaty with Jan de Neufville, who represented Van Breckel, pensionary of Amsterdam.
After this important conquest, Eugene and Marlborough proceeded to the Hague, where they were received in the most flattering manner by the public, by the states-general, and above all, by their esteemed friend the pensionary Heinsius.
That vote was given by deputies at the head of whom was the advocate (in later times called the grand pensionary) of Holland, and who were responsible to, and the spokesmen of, the provincial states.
The advocate (or grand pensionary) of Holland therefore, if an able man, had opportunities for exercising a very considerable influence, becoming in fact a kind of minister of all affairs.
This change was effected smoothly, for though William had many differences with Amsterdam, he had in Anthony Heinsius (van der Heim), who was grand pensionary of Holland from 1690 to his death in 1720, statesman whom he thoroughly trusted, who worked with him in the furtherance of his policy during life and who continued to carry out that policy after his death.
Each town's deputation was headed by its pensionary, who was the spokesman on behalf of the representatives.
The grand pensionary (Raad-Pensionaris) was at once the president and chief administrative The Grand officer of the states.
The grand pensionary presided over the meetings of the college, which had the general charge of the whole provincial administration, especially of finance, the carrying out of the resolutions of the states, the maintenance of defences, and the upholding of the privileges and liberties of the land.
He was made pensionary (stipendiary magistrate) of Middelburg; and two years afterwards of Dort.
In 1636 he was made grand pensionary of Holland, and in 1648 keeper of the great seal; in 1651 he resigned his offices, but in 16J7 he was sent a second time to England on what proved to be an unsuccessful mission to Cromwell.
His papers were found to contain a sketch of a treaty between the United States and Holland projected by William Lee, in the service of Congress, and Jan de Neufville, acting on behalf of Mynheer Van Berckel, pensionary of Amsterdam, and this discovery eventually led to war between Great Britain and the United Provinces.
In vain did the grandIth pensionary of the province of Holland, Jan de Witt, Holland.
In 1576 he obtained the important post of pensionary of Rotterdam, an office which carried with it official membership of the States of Holland.