Nelson having destroyed the French fleet at Trafalgar, Napoleon feared the possibility of a British army being landed on the Peninsular coasts, whence in conjunction with Portuguese and Spanish forces it might attack France from the south.
Larpent during the Peninsular War (London, 1853); Major-General H.
The province furnishes no men for the Spanish peninsular army, but its annual conscription provides men for the local territorial militia, composed of regiments of infantry, squadrons of mounted rifles and companies of garrison artillery - about 5000 men all told.
Eastward from this the ranges of low bare hills called the Murgie of Gravina and Altamura gradually sink into the still more moderate level of those which constitute the peninsular tract between Brindisi and Taranto as far as the Cape of Sta Maria di Leuca, the south-east extremity of Italy.
The romance of his love affair with Sarah Curran - who afterwards married Robert Henry Sturgeon, an officer distinguished in the Peninsular War - has cast a glamour over the memory of Robert Emmet; and it inspired Thomas Moore's well-known songs, "She is far from the land where her young hero sleeps," and "Oh, breathe not his name"; it is also the subject of Washington Irving's "The Broken Heart."
A similar mass, separated from the preceding by a low neck of Tertiary hills, fills up the whole of the peninsular extremity of Italy from Squillace to Reggio.
He served in Virginia in 1861 and in the Peninsular campaign of 1862, and was wounded at Gaines' Mill.
The third division of India comprises the three-sided table-land which covers the southern half or more strictly peninsular portion of India.
But the effect of its southern latitude is tempered by its peninsular character, bounded as it is on both sides by seas of considerable extent, as well as by the great range of the Alps with its snows and glaciers to the north.
Francis, seventh Lord Howard of Effingham, was created earl of Effingham in 1731, a title extinct in 1816 with the fourth earl, but revived again in 1837 for the eleventh baron, who had served as a general officer in the Peninsular campaign, the great-grandfather of the present peer.
His grandfather, Antoine Louis Marie, duc de Gramont (1755-1836), had emigrated during the Revolution, and his father, Antoine Heraclius Genevieve Agenor (1789-1855), duc de Gramont and de Guiche, fought under the British flag in the Peninsular War, became a lieutenantgeneral in the French army in 1823, and in 1830 accompanied Charles X.
Foremost among the leaders of the revolutionary armies were Manuel Belgrano, and after March 1812 General Jose de San Martin, an officer who had gained experience against the French in the Peninsular War.
The Spanish national rising of 1808 and thereafter the Peninsular War diverted Napoleons attention from the affairs of south Italy.
In the main he copied Marinus whose work he revised and supplemented in some points, but he failed to realize the peninsular shape of India, erroneously exaggerated the size of Taprobane (Ceylon), and suggested that the Indian Ocean had no connexion with the western ocean, but formed Mare Clausum.
The Peninsular War called for large forces of the old Grande Arsnee and for a brief period Napoleon directed operations in person; and the Austrians took advantage of the dissemination and weakness of the French forces in Germany to push forward their own preparations with renewed energy.
Thus terminated the long and sanguinary struggle of the Peninsular War.
But the English were simple traders or explorers; far more formidable were the Dutch, who came to the East partly to avenge the injuries inflicted on their country by the Spaniards, partly to break the commercial monopoly of the peninsular states.
The native manufacturers are quite able to compete in peninsular markets with foreign rivals.
Its long and noble resistance, told by the Roman historian Livy in no less noble language, ranks with the Spanish defence of Saragossa in the Peninsular War.
The regular Peninsular & Oriental steamer service began a few years later, and in 1857 a railway was opened from Cairo through the desert.
Of the expenditure more than ten million dollars annually went for the public debt, 5.5 to 6 millions for the army and navy, as much more for civil administration (including more than two millions for purely Peninsular services with which the colony was burdened); and on an average probably one million more went for sinecures.
Napoleon's short Spanish Campaign of 1809 is dealt with under Peninsular War (this article covering the campaigns in Spain, Portugal and southern France 1808-1814), and for the final drama of Waterloo the reader is referred to Waterloo Campaign.
PENINSULAR WAR (1808-14).
Thus, in the last great battle of the war, the courage and resolution of the soldiers of the Peninsular army were conspicuously illustrated.
Southey, History of the Peninsular War (London, 1823-1832); Major A.
As the commander of a corps he served in the Peninsular War, but his cavalry genius did not shine in the Teeth of the lower and upper jaws of the Sea-wolf.
During the Peninsular War Badajoz was unsuccessfully attacked by the French in 1808 and 1809; but on the 10th of March 1811, the Spanish commander, Jose Imaz, was bribed into surrendering to the French force under Marshal Soult.
Tortosa fell into the hands of the duke of Orleans in 1708; during the Peninsular War it surrendered in 1811 to the French under Suchet, who held it till 1814.
Peninsular War >>
During the Peninsular War it was taken by the French in 1808, recaptured by the Spaniards in 1811, and retaken by the French in the same year.
When McClellan entered upon his Peninsular Campaign in 1862 the important duty of defending Washington from the army of "Stonewall" Jackson fell to the corps commanded by Banks.
The events of the Peninsular War, especially as narrated in the Wellington Despatches, are replete with instruction not only for the soldier, but also for the civil administrator.
C. Oman, History of the Peninsular War (London, 1902); Sir J.
Butler, Wellington's Operations in the Peninsula, 1808-14 (London, 1904); Batty, Campaign of the Left Wing of the Allied Army in the Western Pyrenees and South of France, 1813-14 (London, 1823); Foy, Histoire de la guerre de la Peninsule, F&c., sous Napoleon (Paris and London, 1827); Lord Londonderry, Narrative of the Peninsular War, 1808-13 (London, 1829); R.
Frazer, Letters during the Peninsular and Waterloo Campaigns (ed.
Hutchinson, Operations in the Peninsula, 1808-9 (London, 1905); The Dickson MSS., being Journals of Major-General Sir Alexander Dickson during the Peninsular War (Woolwich, 1907).
During his two and a half years of service under Cochrane, the young midshipman witnessed more than fifty engagements, and had much experience of service on the coast of Spain in the early stage of the Peninsular War, in the attack on the French squadron in the Roads (April 1809) and in the Walcheren expedition.
It is a peninsular tract of land, enclosed towards the W.
Shortly after his return, he was sent out to the Peninsular War in command of a considerable force which was sent to Spain to co-operate with Sir John Moore, to whom he was appointed second in command.
The treaty of 1772 between France and Spain was concluded at Aranjuez, which afterwards suffered severely from the French during the Peninsular War.
It was adopted by many important British and continental shipping companies, among others by the Peninsular & Oriental, the Inman, the North German Lloyd and the Hamburg American companies.
Under McClellan he commanded a division of infantry in the Peninsular campaign, and directed the Union siege operations against Yorktown, and he was soon afterwards placed in command of the V.
The gross errors of his policy - the renewal of the war with Holland in 1621, the persistence of Spain in taking part in the Thirty Years' War, the lesser wars undertaken in northern Italy, and the entire neglect of all effort to promote the unification of the different states forming the peninsular kingdom - were shared by him with the king, the Church and the commercial classes.
For the varying fortunes of King Joseph in Spain and in the eventful years of the Peninsular War, see Spain and Peninsular War.
The Gulf has a considerable number of islands, most of them near the peninsular coast, and several deep, well-protected bays - those of La Paz and Santa Ines in Lower California, Guaymas in Sonora, Agiobampo, Topolobampo and Altata Salinas in Sinaloa.
At last, in 1810, the events in Spain which brought about the Peninsular War had divided the authorities in Spanish America, some of whom declared for Joseph Bonaparte, others for Ferdinand VII., others for Charles IV., and Miranda again landed, and got a large party together who declared a republic both in Venezuela and New Granada or Colombia.
The special features of the Gulf Plain are the peninsular extension of the plain in Florida, the belted arrangement of relief and soils in Alabama and in Texas, and the Mississippi embayment or inland extension of the plain half-way up the course of the Mississippi river, with the Mississippi flood plain there included.
See also Sir Herbert Maxwell, Life of Wellington (2 vols., London, 1900), and the literature of the Peninsular War, Waterloo Campaign.
Monte Santo), the most eastern of the three peninsular promontories which extend, like the prongs of a trident, southwards from the coast of Macedonia (European Turkey) into the Aegean Sea.
We may add that in peninsular Italy, which was most clearly under his ecclesiastical jurisdiction, the Lombards had spread havoc and ruin; so that nearly ninety bishoprics had been suppressed, either temporarily or definitively.
He abandoned his scholastic studies to enter the army, and served with distinction in the Peninsular War (1813-14), and in the American War, in which he was thrice wounded.
He served on McClellan's staff during the West Virginia campaign, and was commissioned brigadiergeneral of volunteers and appointed chief of cavalry of the Army of the Potomac in August 1861, in which capacity he took part in the Peninsular campaign and the Seven Days' Battle.
As to its substance, it is beyond dispute that much of the text derives from the French romances of the Round Table; but the evidence does not enable us to say (1) whether it was pieced together from various French romances; (2) whether it was more or less literally translated from a lost French original; or (3) whether the first Peninsular adapter or translator was a Castilian or a Portuguese.
He served with distinction in the Peninsular campaign, and at Antietam, Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, where he received a wound which incapacitated him up to the opening of Grant's Virginia campaign of 1864.
Of the newspapers of Havana the most notable is the El Diario de la Marina (established in 1838; under its present name, 1844 morning and evening), which was almost from its foundation an official organ of the Spanish government, and generally the mouthpiece of the most intransigent peninsular opinion in all that concerned the politics of the island.
The alluvial deposits prove depression in quite recent geological times; and within the Himalayan region earthquakes are still common, whilst in Peninsular India they are rare.
The Damuda series, the middle division of the Lower Gondwanas, is the chief source of coal in Peninsular India, yielding more of that mineral than all other formations taken together.
In ordinary years most of this rice goes either to Europe or to the Farther East; but in famine seasons a large part is diverted to peninsular India, and Burma is the most important of the outside sources from which the deficient crops are supplemented.
For the siege of Burgos heavy guns were available in store on the coast; but he neither had, nor could procure, the transport to bring them up. By resource and dogged determination Wellington rose superior to almost every difficulty, but he could not overcome all; and the main teaching of the Peninsular War turns upon the value of an army that is completely organized in its various branches before hostilities break out.