Unlike the walls of most Chinese cities, those of Peking are kept in perfect order.
From the date when Mr Hart took up his duties at Peking, in 1863, he unceasingly devoted the whole of his energies to the work of the department, with the result that the revenue grew from upwards of eight million taels to nearly twenty-seven million, collected at the thirty-two treaty ports, and the customs staff, which in 1864 numbered 200, reached in 1901 a total of 57 0 4.
Ts'ingtao is connected by railway with Chinan Fu, the capital of the province; a continuation of the same line provides for a junction with the main Lu-Han (Peking-Hankow) railway.
The word itself represents the Mongol Khan-Balik, "the city of the khan," or emperor, the title by which Peking continues, more or less, to be known to the Mongols and other northern Asiatics.
And this constitutes the modern (so-called) "Tatar city" of Peking, the south front of which is identical with the south front of the city of Kublai.
PEKING, or Pekin, the capital of the Chinese Empire, situated in 39° 57' N.
For nine centuries Peking, under various names and under the dominion of successive dynasties, has, with some short intervals, remained an imperial city.
Peking suffered severely during the Boxer movement and the siege of the legations in the summer of 1900.
The population of Peking is reckoned to be about r,000,000, a number which is out of all proportion to the immense area enclosed within its walls.
Viewed from the walls Peking looks like a city of gardens.
It is fortunate that the city is not close-built or crowded, for since the first advent of foreigners in Peking in 1860 nothing whatever had been done until 1900 to improve the streets or the drainage.
The inhabitants of Peking being consumers only, and in no way producers, the trade of the city is very small, though the city is open to foreign commerce.
Oliphant, A Diary of the Siege of the Legations in Peking during the Summer of 7900 (London, 1901); A.
From the north of Manchuria the Khingan range stretches southward to the Chinese frontier near Peking, east of which the drainage falls into the Amur and the Yellow Sea, while to the west is an almost rainless region, the inclination of which is towards the central area of the continent, Mongolia.
He subsequently passed through eastern Tibet to the town of Darchendo, or Tachienlu, on the high road between Lhasa and Peking, and on the borders of China.
Littledale's first journey ended at Peking; his second, in 1894-1895, took him almost within sight of the sacred walls of Lhasa, but he failed to pass inside.
Mark Bell crossed the continent in 1887 and illustrated its ancient trade routes, following the steps of Archibald Colquhoun, who wandered from Peking to Talifu in 1881.
All this is comparatively new geography, and it goes far to explain why the great trade routes from Peking to the west were pushed so far to the north.
In northern China, at Peking, it is 55°, reduced to 30° at Canton, and to 20° at Manila.
To be the fall at Peking; while at Canton, which lies nearly on the northern tropic and the region of the south-west monsoon is entered, the quantity is increased to 78 in.
In 1644 the Ming succumbed to the attacks of the Manchus, a northern tribe who captured Peking and founded the present imperial house.
In the southwest of Manchuria a line of the imperial railways of Northern China gives connexion from Peking, and branches at Kou-pang-tsze to Sin Population.
The first runs from Peking to Kirin via Mukden, where it sends off a branch to Korea.
That empire had been founded by Jenghiz Khan in the first quarter of the century; it stretched from Peking on the east to the Euphrates and the Dnieper on the west.
A great field for missionary enterprise opened itself in the Mongol empire, in which, as has already been mentioned, there were many Christians to be found; and by 1350 this field had been so well worked that Christian missions and Christian bishops were established from Persia to Peking, and from the Dnieper to Tibet itself.
When one remembers that missionaries like Piano Carpini, and traders like the Venetian Polos, either penetrated by land from Acre to Peking, or circumnavigated southern Asia from Basra to Canton, one realizes that there was, about 1300, a discovery of Asia as new and tremendous as the discovery of America by Columbus two centuries later.
Nuda, was found by Bunge in waste ground about Peking; it was identified by the botanist Lindley with the pilcorn of the old agriculture, and we see from Rogers 1 that it was in cultivation in England in the 13th century.
There are good survey maps of the British colony of Hong-Kong, of Wei-hai-Wei and of the country around Kiao-chou, and the establishment of topographical offices at Peking and Ngan-king holds out some promise of native surveys.
Regular postal communication is maintained by the Russians between Kiakhta and Kalgan (close by Peking) across the desert of Gobi.
Four Manchu tsian-tsuns, or governor-generals, acted as chiefs of the troops, and the prince of each aimak, nominated from Peking, was considered as the lieutenant or assistant of his respective Manchu chief.
Among other interesting features it contains information about the Nestorian Church of China in the 13th century - Yabhalaha was a native of Peking - an account of a journey through Central Asia, and a description of a visit to Europe by Rabban Sauma, the friend of the catholicus."
463 and 477), writing about 1770, says that there was then a glass-house at Peking, where every year a good number of vases were made, some requiring great labour because nothing was blown (rien n'est souffle), meaning no doubt that the ornamentation was produced not by blowing and moulding, but by cutting.
Passing northward by Nanking and crossing the Yangtsze-kiang, Odoric embarked on the Great Canal and travelled to Cambalec (otherwise Cambaleth, Cambaluc, &c.) or Peking, where he remained for three years, attached, no doubt, to one of the churches founded by Archbishop John of Monte Corvino, at this time in extreme old age.
Under the Peking Treaty of 1860 the peninsula of Kowloon (about 5 m.
Wuchang is an important junction on the trunk railway from Peking to Canton; and is on the route of the Sze-ch`uen railway.
The following table affords data for comparing the climatesof Peking, Shanghai, Hakodate, Tokyo and San Francisco:
- Hottest Month, Peking July 80
When the Tsar Nicholas inaugurated the Peace Conference at the Hague, Count Muraviev extricated his country from a situation of some embarrassment; but when, subsequently, Russian agents in Manchuria and at Peking connived at the agitation which culminated in the Boxer rising of 5900, the relations of the responsible foreign minister with the tsar became strained.
CHIH-LI (" Direct Rule"), the metropolitan province of China, in which is situated Peking, the capital of the empire.
In Peking there are said to be as many as 20,000 Mahommedan families, and in Pao-ting Fu, the capital of the province, there are about 1000 followers of the prophet.
There are four rivers of some importance in the province: the Pei-ho, with the Hun-ho, which rises in the mountains in Mongolia and, flowing to the west of Peking, forms a junction with the Pei-ho at Tientsin; the Shang-si-ho, which rises in the mountains on the north of the province of Shan-si, and takes a south-easterly course as far as the neighbourhood of Ki Chow, from which point it trends north-east and eventually joines the Hun-ho some 15 m.
Four high roads radiate from Peking, one leading to Urga by way of Shan-hwa Fu, which passes through the Great Wall at Chang-kiu K`ow; another, which enters Mongolia through the.
By road from Peking and 600 m.
The supremacy of China is indicated by occasional missions sent, as on the founding of a new dynasty, to Peking, to bring back a seal and a calendar.
This monarch despatched an embassy to Peking to demand the restitution of the Mahommedan states of Central Asia, but the embassy was not well received, and Ahmed Shah was too much engaged with the Sikhs to attempt to enforce his demands by arms. The Chinese continued to hold Kashgar, with sundry interruptions from Mahommedan revolts - one of the most serious occurring in 1827, when the territory was invaded and the city taken by Jahanghir Khoja; Chang-lung, however, the Chinese general of Ili, recovered possession of Kashgar and the other revolted cities in 1828.
It is the terminus of a railway between Peking and the Yangtsze, the northern half of the trunk line from Peking to Canton.
Thereafter he rose rapidly, until, after a long period of service as vice-minister of foreign affairs, he was appointed to represent his country first in Peking, then in St Petersburg and finally in London, where he acted an important part in negotiating the first AngloJapanese Alliance, for which service he received the title of viscount.
He at first superintended a Christian mission in the southern provinces, and then passing to Peking, where he perfected his knowledge of the language, eventually settled in the Valley of Black Waters or He Shuy, a little to the north of the capital, and just within the borders of Mongolia.
Once in every five years the chiefs send a tribute mission to the capital of Szechuen, and once every ten years to Peking, but the tribute sent is purely nominal.
The Jesuit Antonio Andrada, a native of Portugal (1580-1634), travelling from India, appears to have entered Tibet on the west, in the Manasarowar Lake region, and made his way across to Tangut and north-western China; in 1661 the Jesuit fathers Johann Grueber (an Austrian) and Albert D 'Orville (a Belgian) travelled from Peking via Tangut to Lhasa, and thence through Nepal to India.
After travelling from Lhasa to Peking with a lama mission he returned, again by Lhasa, to India, and was an eyewitness of the sack of Delhi by Nadir Shah in 1737.
He subdued Tibet proper and Kham, for the continued possession of which he was, however, compelled to fight for several years; but he succeeded in the long run, and with the approval of the court of Peking established a dynasty which furnished twelve rulers in succession.
The Dalai Lama was now summoned to Peking, where he obtained the imperial authority to resume his administration in place of the provisional governors appointed as a result of the British mission.
The British government, in view of the apparent intention of China to establish effective suzerainty in Tibet, drew the attention of the government at Peking to the necessity of strictly observing its treaty obligations, and especially pointing out that the integrity of the frontier states of Nepal, Bhutan and Sikkim must be respected.
To the Dalai Lama, who had attempted to obtain British intervention at Peking, it was made clear that he personally had no claim to this, as the British government could only recognize the de facto government in Tibet.
Of France sent forth from Cyprus,' while in 1274 the celebrated traveller Marco Polo, accompanied by two learned Dominicans, visited the court of Kublai-Khan, and at the commencement of the 14th century two Franciscans penetrated as far as Peking, even translating the New Testament and the Psalter into the Tatar language, and training youths for a native ministry?
- Missions : Abyssinia, Persia, China (Peking or N.
In 1685 there were three dioceses, Peking, Nanking and Macao, with a hundred churches.
Footing in Peking in the same year, and established a college of Greek priests.
An important concession was obtained in 1899 by the French minister at Peking, with a view to the more effective protection of the Roman missions.
The murder of the German ambassador, Baron von Ketteler, at Peking in 1900 compelled the government to take a leading part in the joint expedition of the powers to China.
They first prepared a map of the country round Peking, which was submitted to the emperor Kang-hi; and, being satisfied with the accuracy of the European method of surveying, he resolved to have a survey made of the whole empire on the same principles.