In the second half of the 13th century, partly (so far as relates to the Cid) from the above, partly from contemporary Arabic histories, and partly from tradition; the Cronica del Cid, first published in 1512, by Juan de Velorado, abbot of the monastery of San Pedro at Cardena, which is a compilation from the last, interlarded with new fictions due to the piety of the compiler; lastly, various Arabic manuscripts, some of contemporary date, which are examined and their claims weighed in the second volume of Professor Dozy's Recherches sur l'histoire politique et litteraire de l'Espagne pendant le moyen dge (Leiden, 1849).
Among these was Pedro de Mendoza, a Basque nobleman.
The king of Portugal next despatched Bartolomeu Diaz in 1486 to continue discoveries southwards; while, in the following year, he sent Pedro de Covilhao and Affonso de Payva to discover the country of Prester John.
The direct line of Portuguese exploration resulted in the discovery of the Cape route to India by Vasco da Gama (1498), and in 1500 to the independent discovery of South America by Pedro Alvarez Cabral.
The first detailed account of the west coast of South America was written by a keenly observant old soldier, Pedro de Cieza de Leon, who was travelling in South America from 1533 to 1550, and published his story at Seville in 1553.
His widow maintained Valencia for three years longer against the Moors, but was at last compelled to evacuate the city, taking with her the body of the Cid to be buried in the monastery of San Pedro at Cardena, in the neighbourhood of Burgos.
It was commanded by Pedro Menendez de Aviles (1523-1574), one of whose aims was to destroy the Huguenot settlement.
Pedro de Campo Tourinho, a nobleman and excellent navigator, received a grant of the adjoining captaincy of Porto Seguro.
Pedro de Goes obtained a grant of the captaincy of Parahyba between those of Sao Vicente and Espirito Santo; but his means were too feeble to enable him to make head against the aborigines, and the colony was broken up after a painful struggle of seven years.
After negotiating with Don Pedro de Cevallos, the Spanish minister of foreign affairs, from January to May 1805, without success, Monroe returned to London and resumed his negotiations, which had been interrupted by his journey to Spain, concerning the impressment of American seamen and the seizure of American vessels.
Pedro de Zeballos, the first viceroy, took with him from Spain a large military force with which he finally expelled the Portuguese from the banks of the river Plate.
In 1703 she supported the Methuen Treaty, which cemented still further the alliance between Portugal and England, and in 1704 she was appointed regent of Portugal during the illness of her brother King Pedro II., her administration being distinguished by several successes gained over the Spaniards.
Part of the archipelago was discovered by Pedro Fernandez Quiros in 1607.
In 1462 Pedro de Cintra extended Portuguese exploration along the African coast and discovered Sierra Leone.
Pedro de Valdivia in 1540 made an expedition into the country of the Araucanian Indians of Chile, and was the first to explore the eastern base of the Andes in what is now Argentine Patagonia.
The appearance of Drake on the Peruvian coast led to an expedition being fitted out at Callao, to go in chase of him, under the command of Pedro Sarmiento.
Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, who was pilot under Mendana and Luis Vaez de Torres, were sent in command of two ships to continue the work of exploration.
THOMAS TORQUEMADA (1420-1498), inquisitor-general of Spain, son of Don Pedro Ferdinando, lord of Torquemada, a small town in Old Castile, was born in 1420 at Valladolid during the reign of John II.
These American settlements were dotted at intervals along the coast from the mouth of the Sewa river on the west to the San Pedro river on the east (some 60 m.
Founded in 1519 by Pedro Arias de Avila, Panama is the oldest European town on the mainland of America.
Meanwhile John III., king of Portugal, had resolved on sending a mission to his Indian dominions, and had applied through his envoy Pedro Mascarenhas to the pope for six Jesuits.
The state is crossed from east and west by three main lines of railway, parts of the great transcontinental systems, the Southern Pacific and the Western Pacific in the northern part of the state and the San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake in the southern.
The San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake railway, also an important factor in east and west transcontinental traffic, opened in May 1905, has been of special value in the development of the southern part of the state.
It crosses a section that is mostly desert, but is connected with the Bullfrog District by the Las Vegas & Tonopah, which runs from Goldfield through Beatty and Rhyolite, and meets the San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake at Las Vegas.
The most celebrated captains of these wars were present on either side - under Gaston de Foix were Bayard, Yves d'Allegre, La Palisse; and under Cardona the Spanish viceroy of Naples, Pedro Navarro the great engineer, and Pescara the originator of the Spanish tactical system.
In 1822 Minas became a province of the empire created by Dom Pedro I., though a revolutionary outbreak had occurred in Ouro Preto the year before.
In 1639 he accompanied Pedro Texiera in his second exploration of the Amazon, in order to take scientific observations, and draw up a report for the Spanish government.
Pedro Paez >>
In 1720 Villa Rica became the capital of the newly created captaincy of Minas Geraes, and in 1823 the capital of the province of the same name under the empire of Dom Pedro I.
Peru, the empire of the Incas, had not only ordinary maps, but also maps in relief, for Pedro Sarmiento da Gamboa (History of the Incas, translated by A.
A further difficulty arose in connexion with the variation of the compass, which induced Pedro Reinel Behaim'S Globe 1492 Fig.
Other cosmographers of distinction were Pedro Reinel (1504-1542), Nuno Garcia de Toreno (1520), to whom we are indebted for 21 charts, illustrating Magellan's voyage, Diogo Ribero (maps of the world 1527, 1529), 2 Alonzo de Santa Cruz, of Seville, whose Isolario general includes charts of all parts of the world (1541), John Rotz or Rut (1542), Sebastian Cabot (1544), as also Nicolas Desliens, Pierre Desceliers, G.
New maps of Spain and Portugal appeared in 1560, the former being due to Pedro de Medina, the latter to Fernando Alvarez Secco and Hernando Alvaro.
The Spanish town, according to Velasco, was founded in 1538 by Captain Pedro Angules on the site of an Indian village called Chuquisaca, or Chuquichaca (golden bridge), and was called Charcas and Ciudad de la Plata by the Spaniards, though the natives clung to the original Indian name.
(Pedro de Luna), whose name is commemorated in the Bufador de Papa Luna, a curious cavern with a landward entrance through which the sea-water escapes in clouds of spray.
Petropolis was founded in 1845 by Julius Frederick Kdler under the auspices of the emperor of Brazil, Dom Pedro II., on lands purchased by his father, Dom Pedro I., in 1822.
Dom Pedro II.," in honour of the sovereign who encouraged its construction.
Secondary and higher education are under both federal and state control, the former being represented by lyceums in the state capitals, and by such institutions as the Gymnasio Nacional (formerly Collegio Dom Pedro II.) in Rio de Janeiro.
The emperor Dom Pedro II.
The most prominent among Brazilian painters is Pedro Americo, and in sculpture Rodolpho Bernardelli has done good work.
The two English authorities, Robert Southey's History of Brazil, covering the colonial period, and John Armitage's History of Brazil, covering the period between the arrival of the Braganza family (1808) and the abdication of Dom Pedro I.
Next year the Portuguese commander, Pedro Alvares Cabral, appointed by his monarch to follow the course of Vasco da Gama in the East, was driven by adverse winds so far from his track, that he reached the Brazilian coast, April 24, and anchored in Porto Seguro (16° S.
The prince Dom Pedro, heir to the crown, who now for the first time took part in public affairs, actively exerted himself as a negotiator between the king and the troops, who were joined by bodies of the people.
As the king could not abandon Portugal to itself he determined at first to send the prince thither as regent, but Dom Pedro had acquired such popularity by his conduct in the revolution, and had exhibited such a thirst for glory, that the king feared to trust his adventurous spirit in Europe, and decided to go himself.
An insulting decree was passed in the Cortes, ordering the prince Dom Pedro to come to Europe, which filled the Brazilians with alarm; they foresaw that without a central authority the country would fall back to its former colonial state subject to Portugal.
Dom Pedro immediately embarked in an English ship, leaving the new emperor Dom Pedro II.
The majority of the emperor Dom Pedro II.
Under the long reign of Dom Pedro II.
Unostentatious in his habits, Dom Pedro always had at heart the true interests of the Brazilians.
When Dom Pedro left Brazil for the purpose of making a tour through Europe and the United States he appointed Princess Isabella to act as regent, and she showed herself so swayed in political questions by Church influence that Liberal feeling became more and more anti-dynastic. Another incident which gave strength to the opposition was the sudden abolition of slavery without any compensation to slave-owners.
Even among the advocates of republi canism there was no intention of dethroning Dom of Pedro, excepting a few extreme members of the party, who now gained the upper hand.
Dom Pedro, completely broken down by the ingratitude of the people whom he had loved so much and laboured for so strenuously, made no attempt at resistance.
The first was the chaotic confusion of the finances resulting from the maladministration of the national resources since the deposition of Dom Pedro II., and the corruption that had crept into every branch of the public service.
In 1906 Dr Affonso Penna, three times minister under Pedro II., and at that time governor of the state of Minas-Geraes, of which he had founded the new capital, Bello Horizonte, was elected president, a choice due to a coalition of the other states against Sao Paulo, to which all the recent presidents had belonged.
Grosse, Dom Pedro I.
Mosse, Dom Pedro II., empereur du Bresil (Paris, 1889); P. Netscher, Les Hollandais au Bresil (Hague, 1853); J.
The larger palace was built by Pedro Caro for Philip V.
I saw the one through which Emperor Dom Pedro listened to the words, "To be, or not to be," at the Centennial.