The peasants feared him more than they did their master.
The closing of the French market to Sicilian produce, the devastation wrought by the phylloxera and the decrease of the sulphur trade had combined to produce in Sicily a discontent of which Socialist agitators took advantage to organize the workmen of the towns and the peasants of the country into groups known as fasci.
They rode at a footpace to the barn, where a large crowd of peasants was standing.
The crown paid the landlord in obligations representing the capitalized rent, and the peasants had to pay the crown, for forty-nine years, 6% interest on this capital.
Instantly the movement was diverted from its original object, and the peasants and their leaders began a war of extermination against the landlords.
The peasants were ruined; some of them too had gone to Bogucharovo, only a few remained.
The peasants are not compelled to go to the volost court.
"Devil take all these peasants, and money matters, and carryings forward from page to page," he thought.
Much of the work is done by companies of peasants, who come down from the mountainous districts when required, permanent residence not being possible owing to the malaria.
In many parts the peasants and townsfolk, enraged by the licence of the French, hung on his flank and rear.
The country districts, and to exclude from the franchise numbers of peasants and small proprietors who, though of more conservative temperament and of better economic position than the artizan population of the large towns, were often unable to fulfil the scholarship qualification.
He helped to crush the rising of the peasants under Thomas Munzer in Thuringia in 1525; he was a member of the league of Schmalkalden, and took part in all the movements of the Protestants against Charles V.
In a few weeks he collected thousands of so-called Kuruczok (a corruption of Cruciati), consisting for the most part of small yeomen, peasants, wandering students, friars and parish priests, the humblest and most oppressed portion of the community, to whom alone a crusade against the Turk could have the slightest attraction.
The board consists of five classes of members: (I) large landed proprietors (nobles owning S90 acres and over), who sit in person; (2) delegates of the small landowners, including the clergy in their capacity of landed proprietors; (3) delegates of the wealthier townsmen; (4) delegates of the less wealthy urban classes; (5) delegates of the peasants, elected by the volosts.
Le prochain--your Kiev peasants to whom you want to do good.
A trained midwife was engaged for Bogucharovo at his expense, and a priest was paid to teach reading and writing to the children of the peasants and household serfs.
The two tall peasants had their say.
A recent form of co-operative credit banks are the Casse Rurali or rural banks, on the Raffeisen system, which lend money to peasants and small proprietors out of capital obtained on credit or by gift.
By "what was due from the Ryazan estate" Prince Vasili meant several thousand rubles quitrent received from Pierre's peasants, which the prince had retained for himself.
Then he vividly pictured to himself Bogucharovo, his occupations in the country, his journey to Ryazan; he remembered the peasants and Dron the village elder, and mentally applying to them the Personal Rights he had divided into paragraphs, he felt astonished that he could have spent so much time on such useless work.
They are not, as a rule, supported by workmen or peasants, but rather by small tradespeople, manufacturers and farmers.
The peasants went up and took him by his shoulders and legs, but he moaned piteously and, exchanging looks, they set him down again.
The rebellion was the more dangerous as the town rabble was on the side of the peasants, and in Buda and other places the cavalry sent against the Kuruczok were unhorsed as they passed through the gates.
The ukaz allowed peasants with the requisite qualifications to vote as landowners.
5 None but peasants - not even the noble-landowner - has a voice in the assembly of the mir.
In 1893 district committees for the management of the peasants' affairs, similar to those in the purely Russian governments, were introduced into this part of the empire.
The peasants, as already stated, form a class apart, untouched by the influence of Western civilization, the principles of which they are quite incapable of understanding or appreci.
This fact was recognized by the legislators of 1864, and beneath the statutory tribunals created in that year the special courts of the peasants were suffered to survive.
The edict of emancipation abolished this jurisdiction, and set up instead in each volost a court particular to the peasants (volostnye sud), of which the judges and jury, themselves peasants, were elected by the assembly of the volost (volostnye skhod) each year.
In these courts the ordinary written law had little to say; the decisions of the volost courts were based on the local customary law, which alone the peasants, and the peasants alone, understand.
The penalty of flogging, preferred by the peasants to fine or imprisonment, was not unknown.
In the ordinary tribunals weight is given to the " customs " of the peasants, even when these conflict with the written law.
Other noteworthy sources of revenue are trade licences, direct taxes on lands and forests, stamp duties, posts and telegraphs, indirect taxes on tobacco, sugar and other commodities, the crown forests, and land redemption payable annually by the peasants since 1861.
Protected as they were by the right of self-government, exempted from military service, and endowed with considerable allotments of good land, these colonies are much wealthier than the neighbouring Russian peasants, from whom they have adopted the slowly modified village community.
Half of them were formerly serfs (10,447,149 males in 1858) - the remainder being " state peasants " (9,194,891 males in 1858, exclusive of the Archangel government) and " domain peasants " (842,740 males the same year).
The peasants proper received their houses and orchards, and allotments of arable land.
For these allotments the peasants had to pay, as before, either by personal labour or by a fixed rent.
The effect of this, craftily calculated beforehand, was to compel the peasants to rent pasture lands from the landlord at any price.
The present condition of the peasants - according to official documents - appears to be as follows.
Many peasants took the " gratuitous allotments," whose amount was about one-eighth of the normal allotments.
The average allotment in Kherson is only 0.90 acre, and for allotments from 2.9 to 5.8 acres the peasants pay 5 to 10 roubles of redemption tax.
The state peasants are better off, but still they are emigrating in masses.
In Little Russia, where the allotments were personal (the mir existing only among state peasants), the state of affairs does not differ for the better, on account of the high redemption taxes.
Finally, in the Baltic provinces nearly all the land belongs to the German landlords, who either farm the land themselves, with hired labourers, or let it in small farms. Only one-fourth of the peasants are farmers, the remainder being mere labourers, who are emigrating in great numbers.
The forests have been sold, and only those landlords are prospering who exact rack-rents for the land without which the peasants could not live upon their allotments.
On the other hand, since 1861, and more especially since 1882, when the Peasant Land Bank was founded for making advances to peasants who were desirous of purchasing land, the former serfs, or rather their descendants, have between 1883 and 1904 bought about 19,500,000 acres from their former masters.
Promulgated a provisional ukaz permitting the peasants to become freeholders of allotments made at the time of emancipation, all redemption dues being remitted.
They have achieved good results, but do not exhibit, on the whole, the same unity of organization as those which have arisen in a natural way among the peasants and artisans.
What Pierre did not know was that the place where they presented him with bread and salt and wished to build a chantry in honor of Peter and Paul was a market village where a fair was held on St. Peter's day, and that the richest peasants (who formed the deputation) had begun the chantry long before, but that nine tenths of the peasants in that villages were in a state of the greatest poverty.
The good he has done to everybody here, from his peasants up to the gentry, is incalculable.
And the peasants are asking three rubles for carting--it isn't Christian!
A group of bareheaded peasants was approaching across the meadow toward the prince.
Princess Mary saw him walk out of the house in his uniform wearing all his orders and go down the garden to review his armed peasants and domestic serfs.
One instance, which had occurred some twenty years before, was a movement among the peasants to emigrate to some unknown "warm rivers."
Hundreds of peasants, among them the Bogucharovo folk, suddenly began selling their cattle and moving in whole families toward the southeast.
Dron was one of those physically and mentally vigorous peasants who grow big beards as soon as they are of age and go on unchanged till they are sixty or seventy, without a gray hair or the loss of a tooth, as straight and strong at sixty as at thirty.
Though the peasants paid quitrent, Alpatych thought no difficulty would be made about complying with this order, for there were two hundred and thirty households at work in Bogucharovo and the peasants were well to do.
Alpatych named certain peasants he knew, from whom he told him to take the carts.
Dron replied that the horses of these peasants were away carting.
Because, you will agree, chere Marie, to fall into the hands of the soldiers or of riotous peasants would be terrible.
The peasants are ruined?
She also knew that neither her father nor her brother would refuse to help the peasants in need, she only feared to make some mistake in speaking about the distribution of the grain she wished to give.
She began asking Dron about the peasants' needs and what there was in Bogucharovo that belonged to the landlord.
"Give it to the peasants, let them have all they need; I give you leave in my brother's name," said she.
An hour later Dunyasha came to tell the princess that Dron had come, and all the peasants had assembled at the barn by the princess' order and wished to have word with their mistress.
Dron came and confirmed Dunyasha's words; the peasants had come by the princess' order.
For a long time that night Princess Mary sat by the open window of her room hearing the sound of the peasants' voices that reached her from the village, but it was not of them she was thinking.
Two tall old peasants with wrinkled faces and scanty beards emerged from the tavern, smiling, staggering, and singing some incoherent song, and approached the officers.
"My mistress, daughter of General in Chief Prince Nicholas Bolkonski who died on the fifteenth of this month, finding herself in difficulties owing to the boorishness of these people"--he pointed to the peasants--"asks you to come up to the house....
He pointed to the two peasants who kept as close to him as horseflies to a horse.
Forgive us for Christ's sake, eh? said the peasants, smiling joyfully at him.
Rostov looked at the tipsy peasants and smiled.
The peasants are rioting, and you can't manage them?
He said the peasants were obdurate and that at the present moment it would be imprudent to "overresist" them without an armed force, and would it not be better first to send for the military?
The peasants in the crowd were similarly impressed when they saw Rostov's rapid, firm steps and resolute, frowning face.
Some of the peasants said that these new arrivals were Russians and might take it amiss that the mistress was being detained.
Alpatych turned to the peasants and ordered two of them by name to come and bind Karp.
And in fact two more peasants began binding Dron, who took off his own belt and handed it to them, as if to aid them.
The two drunken peasants followed them.
If we had had only peasants to fight, we should not have let the enemy come so far, said he with a sense of shame and wishing to change the subject.
But the attention of the crowd--officials, burghers, shopkeepers, peasants, and women in cloaks and in pelisses--was so eagerly centered on what was passing in Lobnoe Place that no one answered him.
It's not the soldiers only, but I've seen peasants today, too....
The peasants--even they have to go, said the soldier behind the cart, addressing Pierre with a sad smile.
On seeing these peasants, who were evidently still amused by the novelty of their position as soldiers, Pierre once more thought of the wounded men at Mozhaysk and understood what the soldier had meant when he said: "They want the whole nation to fall on them."
Standing among the crowd of peasants, Pierre recognized several acquaintances among these notables, but did not look at them--his whole attention was absorbed in watching the serious expression on the faces of the crowd of soldiers and militiamen who were all gazing eagerly at the icon.
"There, lads... oh, oh!" they mimicked the peasants, "they don't like it at all!"
The peasants, adjusting the stretcher to their shoulders, started hurriedly along the path they had trodden down, to the dressing station.
Ah... those peasants! shouted an officer, seizing by their shoulders and checking the peasants, who were walking unevenly and jolting the stretcher.
The peasants say that a cold wind blows in late spring because the oaks are budding, and really every spring cold winds do blow when the oak is budding.
But though I do not know what causes the cold winds to blow when the oak buds unfold, I cannot agree with the peasants that the unfolding of the oak buds is the cause of the cold wind, for the force of the wind is beyond the influence of the buds.
The peasants and house serfs carrying out the things were treading heavily on the parquet floors.
The voices and footsteps of the many servants and of the peasants who had come with the carts resounded as they shouted to one another in the yard and in the house.
An enormous crowd of factory hands, house serfs, and peasants, with whom some officials, seminarists, and gentry were mingled, had gone early that morning to the Three Hills.
When--free from soldiers, wagons, and the filthy traces of a camp--he saw villages with peasants and peasant women, gentlemen's country houses, fields where cattle were grazing, posthouses with stationmasters asleep in them, he rejoiced as though seeing all this for the first time.
We had a well-to-do homestead, plenty of land, we peasants lived well and our house was one to thank God for.
And lastly you too, peasants, come from the forests where you are hiding in terror, return to your huts without fear, in full assurance that you will find protection!
Markets are established in the city where peasants can bring their surplus supplies and the products of the soil.
There were no industrious workmen, and the peasants caught the commissaries who ventured too far out of town with the proclamation and killed them.
That was a misfortune no one could remedy, for the peasants of the district burned their hay rather than let the French have it.
There were also small scratch groups of foot and horse, and groups of peasants and landowners that remained unknown.
The Cossacks and peasants who crept in among the French now considered everything possible.
Besides the plunderers, very various people, some drawn by curiosity, some by official duties, some by self-interest--house owners, clergy, officials of all kinds, tradesmen, artisans, and peasants--streamed into Moscow as blood flows to the heart.
Within a week the peasants who came with empty carts to carry off plunder were stopped by the authorities and made to cart the corpses out of the town.
Only when he had understood the peasants' tastes and aspirations, had learned to talk their language, to grasp the hidden meaning of their words, and felt akin to them did he begin boldly to manage his serfs, that is, to perform toward them the duties demanded of him.
He was as careful of the sowing and reaping of the peasants' hay and corn as of his own, and few landowners had their crops sown and harvested so early and so well, or got so good a return, as did Nicholas.
Often, speaking with vexation of some failure or irregularity, he would say: "What can one do with our Russian peasants?" and imagined that he could not bear them.
He was a master... the peasants' affairs first and then his own.
Peasants having no clear idea of the cause of rain, say, according to whether they want rain or fine weather: "The wind has blown the clouds away," or, "The wind has brought up the clouds."
Despite his attempt to look down on the peasants, Damian had befriended many of them.
He ran through the city and into the apple orchard on the side of the city she'd only seen once, for peasants didn't go there.
Sometimes from curiosity he went to the ministrations of anabaptists, 2 to hear the preaching of peasants and artisans.
There is evidence of its vogue in Holland in the 17th century, for the painting by David Teniers (1610-1690), in the Scottish National Gallery at Edinburgh, is wrongly described as "Peasants playing at Skittles."
To these seven groups, which are included under the general appellation of Malissori, or "highlanders," may be added the Malsia of Dibra, who extend to the west and north of that town, and form a large separate group; they are notorious for their fierce lawless character, and maintain themselves by plundering the Bulgarian peasants in their neighbourhood.
They are composed principally of peasants, unskilled workmen and other manual laborers.
In Venetia the lives of the small proprietors and of the salaried peasants are often extremely miserable.
And 19,557 (12.90 per 1000) peasants in Lombardy.
Sir Sidney Smith with a British squadron captured Capri (February 18o6), and the peasants of the Abruzzi and Calabria soon began to give trouble.
In the latter case a court of cassation is provided in the district com mittee for the affairs of the peasants (Uyezdnoe po krestianskim dolam prisutstviye), which has superseded the assembly of arbiters of the peace (mirovye posredniki) established in 1866.3 (W.
Altogether some 800,000 peasants are estimated to have settled in Siberia during the period 1886-96, but during the years1893-1905no less than four millions in all.
Revolt against King Joseph, and the peasants dealt out savage reprisals to the French troops.
He did not know that the priest who met him with the cross oppressed the peasants by his exactions, and that the pupils' parents wept at having to let him take their children and secured their release by heavy payments.
Here her character was shaped; here she imbibed that passionate love of country scenes and country life which neither absence, politics nor dissipation could uproot; here she learnt to understand the ways and thoughts of the peasants, and laid up that rich store of scenes and characters which a marvellously retentive memory enabled her to draw upon at will.
The sub-tenants in their turn let a part of their land to peasants in mezzadria, thus creating a system disastrous both for agriculture and the peasants.
The peasants somewhat rarely use animal foodthis is most largely used in Sardinia and least in Sicilybread and polenta or macaroni and vegetables being the staple diet.