Suffrage was by this constitution first extended to women tax-payers in questions " submitted to the tax-payers, as such."
The first class contains such revenues as the emlak verghi-si (duty on realty), `ashar (tithes), temettu (professional tax), &c. In all such cases the taxable values are fixed by a commission of experts, sometimes chosen by the tax-payers themselves, sometimes by the official authorities; in all cases both tax-payers and authorities are represented on the commissions, whose decisions may be appealed against, in last resort, to the council of state at Constantinople, whose decision is final.
The Port of London Authority, as constituted by the act of 1908, is a body corporate consisting of a chairman, vice-chairman, 17 members elected by payers of dues, wharfingers and owners of river craft, I member elected by wharfingers exclusively, and To members appointed by the following existing bodies - Admiralty (one); Board of Trade (two); London County Council (two from among its own members and two others); City Corporation (one from among its own members and one other); Trinity House (one).
By the time he had successfully stormed the rich Jewish town of Khaibar, he had found that it was better to allow industrious Jews to remain in Arabia as payers of tribute than to expel or kill them: this policy he followed afterwards.
General suffrage is conferred on every male citizen of the United States who is twenty-one years of age and who has lived in the state one year, and in the county thirty days immediately preceding an election, the only exceptions being idiots or insane persons; a woman who has the qualifications for suffrage that are required of a man, may vote at any school district election and if a tax-payer she may vote on all questions submitted to the tax-payers of the state or of any political division thereof.
The constitution limits the indebtedness of a county to 5% of the value of its taxable property and that of a city, town or school district to 3%, except that the question may be submitted to a vote of the tax-payers affected when it is deemed necessary to construct a sewerage system or procure a water supply.
The feudal character of the first chamber was abolished, and its members made mainly elective from among the highest tax-payers, while an almost universal suffrage was introduced for the second chamber.
The heavy taxation of the war years was still retained, to the disgust especially of the income-tax payers; and new issues arose over the Education Act, labour questions, and the introduction of Chinese labour into South Africa (in 1904), which were successfully used against the government in the constituencies.
Tithe-payers could also file bills in equity to establish a modus against a tithe-owner.
The limitation of time for recovery of tithes or estates in tithes, whether between rival claimants to tithes or tithe-owners or tithe-payers, if belonging to lay individuals or lay or spiritual corporations aggregate, is a period of twelve years, as in the case of other real property (37 & 38 Vict.
Along with this view has arisen the question whether the burden of taxation should not be progressive - the proportion of the sum taken by the state from the tax-payers increasing with the wealth of the individual; because ability to pay taxes is assumed to be not in proportion to, but to increase with the size of, the income.
These, it is said, can be distributed among different classes of tax-payers, because the income tax falls on the owners of incomes of all kinds of property subject to the duty, if their incomes are above a certain limit, while the incidence of customs and excise duties can be ascertained by inquiries as to the consumption of dutiable articles by different classes.
The payers of income tax, unfortunately, are not one class but many, and although the rate of duty is the same, the definition of income seems imperfect, so that many pay on a much larger assessment of income than seems fair in comparison with other incomes of nominally the same amount, but really of much greater value when all deductions from the gross sum are fairly reckoned.
But it was proposed that these extensions should be accompanied by an educational franchise, and a franchise conferred on persons who had paid twenty shillings in assessed taxes or income tax; the tax-payers who had gained a vote in this way being given a second vote in respect of the property which they occupied.
The moment rates are brought into question it is seen at once how impossible it would be to establish equality among tax-payers, when.
People are induced to do things they would otherwise leave alone, Dr to leave alone what they would otherwise do, because money is given to them out of the pockets of the tax-payers to make it worth their while to do so; but there is palpably loss and not profit in the proceeding.