The regular clergy were if possible worse than the secular, with the exception of the Paulicians, the sole religious order which steadily resisted the general corruption, of whose abbot, the saintly Gregory, was the personal friend of Matthias.
PAULICIANS, an evangelical Christian Church spread over Asia Minor and Armenia from the 5th century onwards.
1 -io of his Historia Manicheorum, who, having held an inquisition of Paulicians in Constantinople was able to supplement Esc. with a few additional details; and by Petrus Siculus (c. 868).
His History of the Manicheans is dedicated to the archbishop of Bulgaria, whither the Paulicians were sending missionaries.
The Paulicians were, according to Esc., Manicheans, so called after Paul of Samosata, son of a Manichean woman Callinice.
West of Erzerum, was regarded by the Paulicians as their real founder.
Transplanted many Paulicians from Germanicia, Doliche, Melitene, and Theodosiupolis (Erzerum), to Thrace, to defend the empire from Bulgarians and Sclavonians.
It is practically certain that Paulicians held this view.
Attests among the Paulicians of the early 6th century, and for which the Key of Truth provides a form.
And other Armenian writers report the same of the Armenian Paulicians or Thonraki, and add that they smashed up crosses when they could.
The main difference then between the Greek and Armenian accounts of the Paulicians is that the former make more of their dualism.
"Paulicians from a certain Paul of Samosata," says Esc. "Here then you see the Paulicians, who got their poison from Paul of Samosata," says Gregory Magistros.
They called themselves the Apostolic Catholic Church, but hearing themselves nicknamed Paulicians by their enemies, probably interpreted the name in the sense of "followers of St Paul."
It was because they believed themselves to have living christs among them that the Paulicians rejected the fetish worship of a material cross, in which orthodox Armenian priests imagined they had by prayers and anointings confined the Spirit of Christ.
The former scruple, however, was not confined to Paulicians, for it inspires the answer made by Eusebius, bishop of Thessalonica, to the emperor Maurice, when the latter asked to have relics sent to him of Demetrius the patron saint of that city.
2 Manicheans, Bogomils, Cathars and Paulicians for like reasons denied the name of church to material constructions of wood and stone.
Among the later Cathars of Europe we find the repudiation of marriage defended on the ground that the only true marriage is of Christ with his bride the Virgin church, and perhaps this is why Paulicians and Thonraki would not make of marriage a religious rite or sacrament.
Did the Paulicians, like the later Cathars (who in so much resembled them), reject water baptism?
6, 8., The title "elect one," used by the Armenian Paulicians also has a Manichean ring.
It is then on the whole probable that the Paulicians who appear in Armenian records as early as 550, and were afterwards= called Thonraki, by the Greeks by the Armenian name Paulikiani, were the remains of a primitive adoptionist Christianity, widely dispersed in the east and already condemned under the name of Pauliani by the council of Nice in 325.
After its conversion in 862, 1 where the struggle between the Eastern and Western churches for the new converts opened a way for the more hardy speculations of a system which had never entirely disappeared, and found a home amongst the Paulicians in Armenia.
And if it has not been quite proved that so early as the 4th century the Priscillianists of Spain were influenced by Manichaeism, it is at least undoubted that the Paulicians and Bogomiles, as well as the Catharists and the Albigenses, are to be traced back to Manichaeism (and Marcionitism).
The struggle with the Paulicians and the Bogomiles, who were often simply identified with the Manichaeans, again directed attention to the latter.
In the rite of laying hands on an elect the bishop of the Armenian Paulicians blows three times in the face of the newly ordained.
He had next to repel the invasions of Patzinaks (Petchenegs) and Kumans in Thrace, with whom the Manichaean sects of the Paulicians and Bogomilians made common cause; and thirdly, he had to cope with the fast-growing power of the Turks in Asia Minor.
In the middle of the 8th century the emperor Constantine Copronymus settled a number of Armenian Paulicians in Thracia.
Other similar works are his treatise in four books against the Manichaeans and Paulicians, and his controversy with the Latins on the Procession of the Holy Spirit.
But it was unquestionably from Marcionite impulses that the new sects of the Paulicians and Bogomils arose; and in so far as the western Cathari, and the antinomian and anticlerical sects ' Marcion was the earliest critical student of the New Testament canon and text.
Born at Germanicia in Syria, and, before he mounted the throne, captain-general of the Anatolian theme, he had come under the influence of the anti-idolatrous sects, such as the Jews, Montanists, Paulicians and Manicheans, which abounded in Asia Minor, but of which he was otherwise no friend.
In the crusading epoch the Cathars and Paulicians carried all over Europe the old iconoclastic spirit, and perhaps helped to transmit it to Wycliffe and Hus.
Their dualist doctrines, as described by controversialists, present numerous resemblances to those of the Bogomils, and still more to those of the Paulicians, with whom they are sometimes connected.