In 1833 Pattinson invented his process by means of which practically all the silver is concentrated in 13% of the original lead to be cupelled, while the rest becomes market lead.
Of these the Pattinson process has become subordinate to the Parkes process, as it is more expensive and leaves more silver and impurities in the market lead.
It holds its own, however, when base bullion contains bismuth in appreciable amounts, as in the Pattinson process bismuth follows the lead to be cupelled, while in the Parkes process it remains with the desilverized lead which goes to market, and lead of commerce should contain little bismuth.
The effect of the two processes on the purity of the market lead is clearly shown by the two following analyses by Hampe, which represent lead from Lautenthal in the Harz Mountains, where the Parkes process replaced that of Pattinson, the ores and smelting process remaining practically the same: - It is absolutely necessary for the success of the Parkes process that the zinc and lead should contain only a small amount of impurity.
5% lead if it comes from a Pattinson plant, from 5-to% if from a Parkes plant.
In the Pattinson process the argentiferous lead is melted down in the central cast iron kettle of a series 8-15, placed one next to the other, each having a capacity of 9-15 tons and a separate fire-place.
The original Pattinson process has been in many cases replaced by the LuceRozan process (1870), which does away with arduous labour and attains a more satisfactory crystallization.
A basic chloride, Pb(OH)Cl, was introduced in 1849 by Pattinson as a substitute for white lead.