Moreover, we have good reasons for inferring that different constellations of external causes may determine whether the internal physiological disturbances induced by a given agent shall lead to pathological and dangerous variations, or to changes which may be harmless or even advantageous to the plant concerned.
Thus even gout was regarded as a" neurosis."These pathological principles of Cullen are contained in his First Lines of the Practice of Physic, an extremely popular book, often reprinted and translated.
In England his pathological work won general recognition.
- In many pathological conditions we have degenerative products of various kinds formed in the tissues.
He retired to Darmstadt, where he practised as a physician and contributed regularly to pathological and physiological magazines.
From 1816 he published various papers in the Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal, which formed the basis of his Pathological and Practical Researches on Diseases of the Brain and Spinal Cord, and of his Researches on the Diseases of the Intestinal Canal, Liver and other Viscera of the Abdomen, both published in 1828.
Pathological chemistry has been remarkable chiefly for the knowledge we have obtained of the nature of bacterial poisons.
The use of the term " pathological physiology " may at first appear strange, for if we define physiology as the sum of the normal functions of the body or organism, it may be hard to see how there can be a physiology which is pathological.
This splitting up of the fats previously combined with albumin in the cell by the action of natural ferments - lipases - and the setting free of the fats under the influence of toxins represent the normal and the pathological process in the production of so-called fatty degeneration.
Skin-grafting and regeneration of bone are among not the least remarkable applications of pathological principles to the combat with disease in recent times; and in this connexion may also be mentioned the daring acts of surgery for the relief of tumours of the brain, rendered practicable by improved methods of localization, as well as operations upon the serous cavities for diseased conditions within them or in their vicinity.
These are physiology in the modern sense, as dating from Haller, and pathological anatomy, as dating from Morgagni.
Broussais's system, to which he gave the name of "Medecine physiologique," did much indirect good, in fixing attention upon morbid changes in the organs, and thus led to the rise of the strongly opposed anatomical and pathological school of Corvisart, Laennec and Bayle.
Chemical, physiological and pathological research is exploring the secret of these more refined kinds of "anchorage" of molecules.
Experimental pathology has benefited by the use of antiseptic surgery in operations upon animals, and by the adoption of exact methods of recording; while the employment of solid culture media in bacteriology - the product of Koch's fertile genius - is responsible for a great part of the extraordinary development which has taken place in this department of pathological research.
A system of medicine reared upon anything but a pathological basis would be unworthy of consideration.
Some pathological cells, such as the giant-cells of tumours, of bone, and those of tubercle, are polynucleated; in some instances they may contain as many as thirty or more nuclei.
Fatty accumulations in the tissues of the body are found in health and in pathological conditions; these are usually recognized and described as fatty infiltrations and fatty degenerations, but there are intermediate conditions which make it difficult to separate sharply these processes.
The coloured fats, or lipochromes, are found normally in some of the cells of the internal organs, and under certain pathological conditions.
It is now known to have nothing in common with vegetable cellulose, but is regarded as one of the many albuminoid substances existing in the body under pathological conditions.
375; Wilson, The Cell in Development and Inheritance (London, 1896); Ziegler, " Entztindung," in Eulenburg's Real Encyclopeidie, also Text-Book of Special Pathological Anatomy (Eng.
In 1872, Hoppe-Seyler (1825-1895) gave a new beginning to our knowledge of the chemistry of secretion and of excretion; and later students have increased the range of physiological and pathological chemistry by investigations not only into the several stages of albuminoid material and the transitions which all foodstuffs undergo in digestion, but even into the structure of protoplasm itself.
If we consult the medical works even of the middle of the 19th century we shall find that, in the light of the present time, accurate knowledge in this sphere, whether clinical, pathological or therapeutical, could scarcely be said to exist.
1843) found an adequate field for the clinical and pathological parts of their work.
Milk sugar, lactose, lactobiose, C12H22011, found in the milk of mammals, in the amniotic liquid of cows, and as a pathological secretion, is prepared by evaporating whey and purifying the sugar which separates by crystallization.
Wide as were Virchow's studies, and successful as he was in all, yet the foremost place must be given to his achievements in pathological investigation.
Eventually he was able to prove that the biological doctrine of omnis cellula ecellula applies to pathological processes as well as to those of normal growth, and in his famous book on Cellular-pathologic, published at Berlin in 1858, he established what Lord Lister described as the "true and fertile doctrine that every morbid structure consists of cells which have been derived from pre-existing cells as a progeny."
The Nematode parasites of the Invertebrata are usually immature forms which attain their full development in the body of some vertebrate; but there are a number of species which in the sexually adult condition are peculiar to the Invertebrata.2 The Nematoda contain about as many parasitic species as all the other groups of internal parasites taken together; they are found in almost all the organs of the body, and by their presence, especially when encysted in the tissues and during their migration from one part of the body to another, give rise to various pathological conditions.
Every plant is constrained to carry Out its functions of germination, growth, nutrition, reproduction, &c., between certain limits of temperature, and somewhere between the extremes of these limits each function finds ao optimum temperature at which the working of the living machinery is at its best, and, other things being equal, any great departure from this may induce pathological conditions; and many disasters are due to the failure to provide such suitable temperaturese.g.
A plant may be diseased as a whole, because nearly all its tissues are in a morbid or pathological condition, owing to some Fungus pervading the wholee.g.
For instance, the difference between the long-stalked and finely-cut leaves of Anemone attacked with rust and the normal leaves with broad segments, or between the urceolate leaves occasionally found on cabbages and the ordinary formin these cases undoubtedly pathological and teratological respectivelyis nothing like so great as between the upper and lower normalleaves of many Umhelliferae or the submerged and floating leaves of an aquatic Ranunculus or Cabomba.
The pathological changes in malaria are due to the deposition of melanin and the detritus of red corpuscles and haemoglobin, and to the congregation of parasites in certain sites (Ross).
The pathology of aphasia, as worked out by a combination of the experimental, the pathological and the anatomical lines of inquiry is a favourable example of what has been accomplished.
According to our present knowledge of physiological and pathological processes, we must regard the cell as the ultimate biological unit - a unit of structure and a unit of function; this was first put forward by Schleiden in 1838, and by Schwann in 1839, but we owe to Virchow the full recognition of the fundamental importance of the living cell in all the processes of life, whether in health or disease.
Although the methods of cell-division prevailing in normal structures are maintained generally in those which are pathological, yet certain modifications of these methods are more noticeable in the latter than in the former.
In many pathological cells undergoing indirect segmentation, centrosomes appear to be absent, or at any rate do not manifest themselves at the poles of the achromatic spindle.
In pathological cell-division it happens occasionally that the segmentation of the cytoplasm is delayed beyond that of the mitotic network.
The significance of glycogen in large amounts, or of its absence from the tissues in pathological conditions, is not clearly understood.
The discoveries made in pathological bacteriology, indeed, must be held to be among the most brilliant of the age.
II.), succeeded by the isolation of the organisms of typhoid, cholera, diphtheria, actinomycosis, tetanus, &c. The knowledge we now possess of the causes of immunity from contagious disease has resulted from this study of pathological bacteriology: momentous practical issues have also followed upon this study.
In the animal kingdom, also, it is very widely distributed, being sometimes a normal and sometimes a pathological constituent of the fluids and tissues; in particular, it is present in large amount in the urine of those suffering from diabetes, and may be present in nearly all the body fluids.
" Amyloid " occurs as a pathological product, and also in the healthy aorta and in old cartilage.