PATHAN, the name applied throughout India to the Afghans, especially to those permanently settled in the country and to those dwelling on the borderland.
Whilst the heavier troops moved down the Kabul valley to Pencelaotis (Charsadda) under Perdiccas and Hephaestion, Alexander with a body of lighter-armed troops and cavalry pushed up the valleys which join the Kabul from the north - through the regions now known as Bajour, Swat and Buner, inhabited by Indian hill peoples, as fierce then against the western intruder as their Pathan successors are against the British columns.
On the downfall of the Pathan dynasty of Delhi, about A.D.
The geographical boundary between the Pathan and Baluch races in the hills nearly corresponds with the northern limit of the district.
MUSA KHEL, a Pathan tribe on the Dera Ghazi Khan border of the Punjab province of India.
In 1879 the Musa Khels and other Pathan tribes to the number of 5000 made a demonstration against Vihowa, but the town was reinforced and they dispersed.
The principal tribes inhabiting the district are: (1) Waziri Pathans, recent immigrants from the hills, for the most part peaceable and good cultivators; (2) Marwats, a Pathan race, inhabiting the lower and more sandy portions of the Bannu valley; (3) Bannuchis, a mongrel Afghan tribe of bad physique and mean vices.
Within the limits of British territory the Gomal forms the boundary between the North-West Frontier Province and Baluchistan, and more or less between the Pathan and Baluch races.
Many of the Pathan tribes in the North-West Frontier Province of India, such as the Bangash of Kohat and the Mishwanis of the Hazara border, claim Sayad origin.
The first was that he had arbitrarily imprisoned a Pathan chief named Khadar Khan, on suspicion of being concerned in the murder of Colonel Mackeson.
The true Pathan is possibly of Indian extraction.
The 16th century saw the Pathan tribes established in their present homes.
It omitted Sind altogether, and confined the new province to the Pathan trans-Indus districts north of the Gomal.
The great majority of the population are Pathan by race and Mahommedan by religion.
The Pathan, however, is a slovenly cultivator and slow to adopt any new methods which involve increased effort.
In the course of the century it was conquered by the Pathans and formed part of the Pathan kingdom of Bengal.
At the beginning of the 18th century it appears as a kind of military fief held under the nawab of Murshidabad by one Asadullah Pathan, whose family had probably been its chieftains since the fall of the Pathan dynasty of Bengal in 1600.
The Durand agreement of 1893 led to the partition of the Pathan tribes on the southern and eastern frontiers.
Popularly any inhabitant of Afghanistan is known as Afghan on the Indian frontier without distinction of origin or language; but the language division between the Parsiwan (or Persian-speaking Afghan) and the Pathan is a very distinct one.
Yet they also claim to be Pukhtun (or Pathan) in common with all other Pushtu-speaking tribes, whom they do not admit to be Afghan.
The bond of affinity between the various peoples who compose the Pathan community is simply the bond of a common language.
The successive dynasties of Delhi are generally called Pathan, but were really so only in part.
The Mahommedans of India may be divided into two classes, pure Mahommedans from the Mogul and Pathan conquering races, and Mahommedan converts, who differ very little from the surrounding Hindu population from which they originally sprang.
In the Punjab, besides the Pathan immigrants from across the frontier, Islam has taken a strong hold of the native population.
To the westward, after various disagreements and two military expeditions, the territories comprising the Zhob, Barhan and Bori valleys, occupied by Pathan tribes, were in 1890 finally incorporated in the general system of the Trans-Indus protectorate.
It was formerly fastened with strings, but now with the ghundi (the old form of button) and tukmah or loop. In southern India, Gujarat and in the United Provinces the arid is much the same as to length and fit as the English shirt; as the traveller goes northward from Delhi to the Afghan border he sees the kurta becoming longer and looser till he finds the Pathan wearing it almost to his ankles, with very full wide sleeves.
Bar Durani is a name sometimes applied to the independent Pathan tribes who inhabit the hill districts south of the Hindu Kush, parts of the Indus valley, the Salt Range, and the range of Suliman, which were first conceded to them by Ahmad Shah.
Mohmands, Afridis, Orakzais and Shinwaris, as well as the Pathan tribes of the plains of Peshawar and those of Bangash and Khattak, although the derivation of some of these tribes from the true Durani stock is doubtful.
Bishop Heber described them as follows: - "The country is burdened with a crowd of lazy, profligate, self-called sawars (cavaliers), who, though many of them are not worth a rupee, conceive it derogatory to their gentility and Pathan blood to apply themselves to any honest industry, and obtain for the most part a precarious livelihood by sponging on the industrious tradesmen and farmers, on whom they levy a sort of blackmail, or as hangers-on to the wealthy and noble families yet remaining in the province.
North of the railway line, hedged in between Afghanistan and the plains of the Indus, stretch the long ridges of rough but picturesque highlands, which embrace the central ranges of the Suliman system (the prehistoric home of the Pathan highlander), where vegetation is often alpine, and the climate clear and bracing and subject to no great extremes of temperature.
The average breadth of this northern Pathan district is 150 m., but it narrows to less than I oo m.
The greater part of the Pathan country was placed under British political control by the Durand agreement made with the Amir of Afghanistan in 1893.
BAJOUR, or Bajaur, a small district peopled by Pathan races of Afghan origin, in the North-West Frontier Province of India.
To the south of Bajour is the wild mountain district of the Mohmands, a Pathan race.
To the east, beyond the Panjkora river, are the hills of Swat, dominated by another Pathan race.
They consist largely of the original inhabitants of the country, who were proselytized by the successive Pathan and Mogul invasions.
From 1540 to 1576 Bengal passed under the rule of the Pathan or Afghan dynasty, which commonly bears the name of Sher Shah.
The loyalty of the independent Sikh chiefs, headed by Patiala, and the stern measures which had been taken with the sepoy regiments enabled Lawrence to reinforce this little army with every available man and gun from the Punjab, in addition to Sikh and Pathan levies.
Hitherto the Pathan kings had been content with the ancient Hindu capital, altered and adorned to suit their tastes.
Taking the Rind Baluch as the type opposed to the Afridi Pathan, the lialuch is easier to deal with and to control than the Pathan, owing to his tribal organization and his freedom from bigoted Pathan tribes of the Suliman hills are held in check by the occupation of the Zhob valley; whilst the central dominant position at Quetta safeguards the peace and security of Kalat, and of the wildest of the Baluch hills occupied by the Marris and Bugtis, no less than it bars the way to an advance upon India by way of Kandahar.
Like the Pathan he is a bandit by tradition and descent and makes a first-rate fighting man, but he rarely enlists in the Indian army.
There are thirteen indigenous tribes of Pathan origin, of which the Kakars are by far the most important, numbering more than 100,000 souls.