The Bell telephone patents expired.
This engine was the subject of two patents (by R.
The term " industrial property " covers patents, trade marks, merchandise marks, trade names, designs and models.
Patents, designs and trade marks are now dealt with by the patent office under the charge of a controller-general (salary £1800), which is subordinate to the railway department, and copyright, art unions and industrial exhibitions are also among the matters dealt with by the department.
He took out patents for lamps to burn oil of tar, for the propulsion of ships at sea, for facilitating excavation, mining and sinking, for rotary steam-engines and for other purposes; and so early as 1843 he was an advocate of the employment of steam and the screw propeller in warships.
His settlement of the railway dispute in 1906 was universally applauded; and the bills he introduced and passed for reorganizing the port of London, dealing with Merchant Shipping, and enforcing the working in England of patents granted there, and so increasing the employment of British labour, were greeted with satisfaction by the tariff-reformers, who congratulated themselves that a Radical free-trader should thus throw over the policy of laisser faire.
In the Constituent Assembly he was a member of the committee of taxes (comité des contributions), prepared a scheme for a new system of taxation, drew up a law on patents, occupied himself with the laws relating to stamps and assignats, and was successful in opposing the introduction of an income tax.
Precisely as to-day inventions are guarded by patents, and literary and artistic creations by the law of copyright, so, at that period, the papal bull and the protection of the Roman Church were an effective means for ensuring that a country should reap where she had sown and should maintain the territory she had discovered and conquered by arduous efforts; while other claimants, with predatory designs, were warned back by the ecclesiastical censorship. In the Vatican the memory of Alexander VI.
56), and a like power is given to both these courts and the judicial committee of the privy council in patent cases (Patents, &c., Act 1883, s.
Castner's sodium patents appeared, and The Aluminium Co.
In 1888 the Alliance Aluminium Co., organized to work certain patents for winning the metal from cryolite by means of sodium, erected plant in London, Hebburn and Wallsend, and by 1889 were selling the metal at 11s.
Minet took out patents for electrolysing a mixture of sodium chloride with aluminium fluoride, or with natural or artificial cryolite.
The ethoxymethylene aceto-acetic esters are prepared by condensing aceto-acetic ester with ortho-formic ester in the presence of acetic anhydride (German patents 77354, 79087, 79863).
The legislative power of the empire also takes precedence of that of the separate states in the regulation of matters affecting freedom of migration (Freizugigkeit), domicile, settlement and the rights of German subjects generally, as well as in all that relates to banking, patents, protection of intellectual property, navigation of rivers and canals, civil and criminal legislation, judicial procedure, sanitary police, and control of the press and of associations.
This office is divided into four departments, dealing with (i.) the business of the Bundesrat, the Rcichstag, the elections, citizenship, passports, the press, and military and naval matters, so far as the last concern the civil authorities; (ii.) purely social matters, such as old age pensions, accident insurance, migration, settlement, poor law administration, &c.; (iii.) sanitary matters, patents, canals, steamship lines, weights and measures; and (iv.) commercial and economic relationssuch as agriculture, industry, commercial treaties and statistics.
Patents, marriages (of non-natives), &c., &c., form the subject of other laws.
The bishop of Calcutta received letters patent as metropolitan of India when the sees of Madras and Bombay were founded; and fresh patents were issued to Bishop Broughton in 1847 and Bishop Gray in 1853, as metropolitans of Australia and South Africa respectively.
With the exception of Colenso the South African bishops forthwith surrendered their patents,and formally accepted Bishop Gray as their metropolitan, an example followed in 1865 in the province of New Zealand.
The first patents for the electrolysis of alkaline chlorides were taken out in 1851 and several others later on; but commercial success was utterly impossible until the invention of the dynamo machine allowed the production of the electric current at a sufficiently cheap rate.
The first application of this machine for the present purpose seems to have been made in 1875 and the number of patents soon rapidly increased; but although a large amount of capital was invested and many very ingenious inventions made their appearance, it took nearly another twenty years before the manufacture of alkali in this way was carried out in a continuous way on a large scale and with profitable results.
This jurisdiction is undoubtedly extensive, comprising among others, power to legislate concerning trade and industry, criminal law, taxation, quarantine, marriage and divorce, weights and measures, legal tender, copyrights and patents, and naturalization and aliens.
We know indeed that he sympathized cordially with the home policy of the government; he had no objection to such monopolies or patents as seemed advantageous to the country, and for this he is certainly not to be blamed.'
But we know also that the patents were so numerous as to be oppressive, and we can scarcely avoid inferring that Bacon more readily saw the advantages to the government than the disadvantages to the people.
In November 1620, when a new parliament was summoned to meet on January following, he earnestly pressed that the most obnoxious patents, those of alehouses and inns, and the monopoly of gold and silver thread, should be given up, and wrote to Buckingham, whose brothers were interested, advising him to withdraw them from the impending storm.
The session, however, was not far advanced when the question of patents was brought up; a determined attack was made upon the very ones of which Bacon had been in dread, and it was even proposed to proceed against the referees (Bacon and Montagu) who had certified that there was no objection to them in point of law.
Other workers have followed more or less on the same lines; reference may be made to the patents of F.
Leagues of public land) was settled affirmatively in 1867, but the final land patents were not issued until 1884 by the national government.
The revenues are derived principally from duties and fees on imports, excise taxes on spirits, wines, tobacco and sugar, general, mining taxes and export duties on minerals (except silver), export duties on rubber and coca, taxes on the profits of stock companies, fees for licences and patents, stamp taxes, and postal and telegraph revenues.
The income which the Cossack voiskos receive from the lands which they rent to different persons, also from various sources (trade patents, rents of shops, fisheries, permits of gold-digging, &c.), as also from the subsidies they receive from the government (about £712,500 in 1893), is used to cover all the expenses of state and local administration.
The two inventors then cooperated, an experimental plant was run successfully, and the patents were taken over by the leading manufacturers.
Knietsch, of the Badische Anilin-und Soda-Fabrik, at Ludwigshafen, but kept strictly secret until 1899, when the patents were published.
Bolton, History of the Several Towns, Manors and Patents of Westchester County (New York, 1881), and J.
Many who had migrated to Pike's Peak in 18J9, stopped in Nebraska on their return eastward; and settlement was stimulated by the national Homestead Act of 1862 (one of the first patents granted thereunder, on the 1st of January 1863, was for a claim near Beatrice, Nebraska), and by the building and land-sales of the Union Pacific and Burlington railways following 1863.
The states-general were silenced and the royal prerogative increased; the royal domains were extended, and the wealth of the crown was augmented; additions were made to the revenue by the sale of municipal charters and patents; and taxation became heavier, since Charles set no limits to the gratification of his tastes either in the collection of jewels and precious objects, of books, or of his love of building, examples of which are the renovation of the Louvre and the erection of the palace of Saint Paul in Paris.
It was pointed out that, in conformity with the decree of the 9th of April 1902, it had become necessary to coerce those congregations and associations which had not fulfilled the formalities prescribed by the law of 1887, and also those engaged in commerce and industry which had not taken cut patents with a view to their taxation.
But though five firms applied without delay for licences to work under his patents, success did not at once attend his efforts; indeed, of ter several ironmasters had put the process to practical trial and failed to get good results, it was in danger of being thrust aside and entirely forgotten.
Of course, patents of such obvious value did not escape criticism, and invalidity was freely urged against them on various grounds.
Whether or not Mushet's patents could have been sustained, the value of his procedure was shown by its general adoption in conjunction with the Bessemer method of conversion.
Many complex derivatives are known, such, for example, as phosphor-vanadates, arsenio-vanadates, tungsto-vanadates, molybdovanadates, &c. For the use of this oxide in the electrolytic oxidation and reduction of organic compounds, see German Patents 172654 (1903) and 183022 (1905).
For Ireland, besides the state papers, there are the Calendars of Patents and of Fiants, and for Scotland the Exchequer Rolls and Registers of the Privy Council and of the Great Seal, both extending to many volumes.
As the value of his processes became known, he began to be troubled with infringements of his patents, and in 1781 he took action in the courts to vindicate his rights.
On a motion for a new trial on the 10th of November of the same year it was stated that he was furnished with affidavits contradicting the evidence that had been given by Kay and others with respect to the originality of the invention; but the court refused to grant a new trial, on the ground that, whatever might be the fact as to the question of originality, the deficiency in the specification was enough to sustain the verdict, and the cancellation of the patents was ordered a few days afterwards.