The Seriema must be regarded as the not greatly modified heir of some very old type, such as one may fairly imagine to have lived before many of the existing groups of birds had become differentiated, and it is probable that the extinct birds known as Stereornithes, and in particular the fossil Phororhachos from the Miocene of Patagonia, were closely allied to its ancestors.
By this agreement Argentina was confirmed in the possession of the greater part of Patagonia, while Chile gained control of the Straits of Magellan, much adjacent territory on the north, the larger part of Tierra del Fuego and all the neighbouring islands south and west.
(A description of the Patagonian part of Argentina will be found under Patagonia.) Rivers and Lakes.
Farther south, in Patagonia, the prevailing wind is westerly, in which case the Andes again " blanket " an extensive region and deprive it of rain, turning it into an arid desolate steppe.
The greater part of Patagonia is comparatively barren and has no arboreal growth, except in the well-watered valleys of the Andean foothills.
The " nandu " or American ostrich (Rhea americans), inhabiting the pampas and open plains of the Chaco, has in Patagonia a smaller counterpart (Rhea Darwinii), which is never seen north of the Rio Negro.
Hudson's Idle Days in Patagonia, and Naturalist in the La Plata; G.
The government maintains a naval school at Flores, a school of mechanics in Buenos Aires, an artillery school on the cruiser " Patagonia," and a school for torpedo practice at La Plata.
The question of the Puna de Atacama was referred to a tribunal composed of the United States minister to Argentina and of one Argentine and one Chilean delegate; that of the southern frontier in Patagonia to the British crown.
The delay of the arbitration tribunal in London in giving its decision in the matter of the disputed boundary in Patagonia led to a crop of wild rumours being disseminated, and to a revival of animosity between the two peoples.
Hudson, The Naturalist in La Plata (London, 1892), and Idle Days in Patagonia (London, 1893); A.
P. Moreno, " Explorations in Patagonia " (Geogr.
The occurrence in the Santa Cruz beds of Patagonia of fossil marsupials allied to the living Caenolestes has been mentioned above.
SPARASSODONTA, a zoological name applied to a group of primitive carnivorous mammals from the Santa Cruz beds of Patagonia, represented by the genera Borhyaena, Prothylacinus, Amphiproviverra, &c. By their first describer, Dr F.
He started on the 21st of September 1519, entered the strait which now bears his name in October 1520, worked his way through between Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, and entered on Vasco da Gama.
Andrews, " On the Extinct Birds of Patagonia," Tr.
The Falkland Islands form essentially a part of Patagonia, with which they are connected by an elevated submarine plateau, 1 See B Stechele, in'Milnchener geographische Studien, xx.(1906), and Geographical Journal (December 1907).
The trees which form dense forest and scrub in southern Patagonia and in Fuegia are absent, and one of the largest plants on the islands is a gigantic woolly ragweed (Senecio candicans) which attains in some places a height of 3 to 4 ft..
Falkner, Description of Patagonia and the Falkland Islands (1774); B.
Lat., within the geographical area formerly known as Patagonia, bounded N.
Norway, Scotland, British Columbia 5 and Alaska, Patagonia and Chile, and even Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya, whose west coasts are far more indented than their east ones.
For certain small ground-sloths from Patagonia with Megatherium- like teeth, see MYLODON.
The puma has an exceedingly wide range of geographical distribution, extending over a hundred degrees of latitude, from Canada in the north to Patagonia in the south, and formerly was generally diffused in suitable localities from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, but the advances of civilization have curtailed the extent of the districts which it inhabits.
The Peruvian chinchilla (C, brevicaudata) is larger, with relatively shorter ears and tail; while still larger species constitute the genus Lagidium, ranging from the Andes to Patagonia, and distinguished by having four in place of five front-toes, more pointed ears, and a somewhat differently formed skull.
It is most abundant in the open districts of Patagonia, but also ranges on to the Argentina Pampas, where it is now scarce.
Sheep ranges under the care of Scottish shepherds have also been established in the department of Junin, the stock being imported from southern Patagonia, England and Australia.
In South America coal is known in Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, northern Chile, Brazil (chiefly in the south), and Argentina (Parana, the extreme south of Patagonia, and Tierra del Fuego), but in no country are the workings extensive.
Special interest attaches to the recent discovery in the cavern of Ultima Esperanza, South Patagonia, of remains of the genus Glossotherium, or Grypotherium, a near relative of Mylodon, but differing from it in having a bony arch connecting the nasal bones of the skull with the premaxillae; these include a considerable portion of the skin with the hair attached.
Although a few of the Pleistocene ground-sloths, such as Nothropus and Nothrotherium (= Coelodon), were of comparatively small size, in the Santa Cruz beds of Patagonia few of the representatives of the family much exceeded a modern sloth in size.
Excepting the barren lands of the Antarctic regions, with which Patagonia is somewhat associated by a broken string of islands, the nearest continental lands of a more habitable kind are South Africa and New Zealand., In contrast to the sub-Arctic land ring, here is a sub-Antarctic ocean ring, and as a result the land flora and fauna of South America to-day are strongly unlike the life forms of the other south-ending continents.
Bolivia; Tapuyan, Brazil; Timotean, Venezuela; TU Pian, Amazon R.; Tzonecan, Patagonia; Yahgan, T.
Its general range from the extreme north to Patagonia is 14,000 to 15,500 ft., but along the Patagonian frontier it sinks rapidly, until in Tierra del Fuego it lies at about 4900 ft.
In the course of the memorable voyage of the "Beagle," C. Darwin came to hear of another kind of rhea, called by his informants Avestruz petise, and at Port Desire on the east coast of Patagonia he obtained an example of it, the imperfect skin of which enabled J.
Americana is known to extend from Paraguay and, southern Brazil through the La Plata region to an uncertain distance in Patagonia, R.
It is, however, important to mention that an extinct South American insectivore, Necrolestes, has been referred to the family last mentioned; and even if this reference should not be confirmed in the future, the occurrence of a representative of the order in Patagonia is a fact of considerable importance in distribution.
With three exceptions, all the genera of this extensive family belong to the New World, being specially characteristic of the Neotropical region, where they occur as far south as Patagonia, while extending northward into the warmer parts of the Nearctic regions as far as California and British Columbia.
Pinguicula is abundant in the north temperate zone, and ranges down the Andes as far as Patagonia; the 250 species of Utricularia are mostly aquatic, and some are found in all save polar regions; their unimportant congeners, Genlisea and Polypompholix, occur in tropical America and south-western Australia respectively.
Smaller cones, less than an inch long, occur in the larch, Athrotaxis (Tasmania), Fitsroya (Patagonia and Tasmania), &c. In the Taxodieae and Araucarieae the cones are similar in appearance to those of the Abietineae, but they differ in the fact that the scales appear to be single, even in the young condition; each cone-scale in a genus of the Taxodiinae (Sequoia, &c.) bears several seeds, while in the Araucariinae (Araucaria and Agathis) each scale has one seed.
All the above are of Pleistocene and perhaps Pliocene age, but in the Santa Cruz beds of Patagonia there occur the two curious genera Propalaeohoplophorus and Peltephilus, the former of which is a primitive and generalized type of glyptodont, while the latter seems to come nearer to the armadillos.
Pepper, Panama to Patagonia (Chicago, 1906); A.
Pepper, Panama to Patagonia (London, 1907); C. E.
In addition to this, Chile claimed Patagonia and the adjacent islands, and has finally secured not only the forested The population is not concentrated in large cities, but is well distributed through the cultivated parts of the country.