Barclay's pastorals contain many pictures of rustic life as he knew it.
The charm of his pastorals is the Italian sentiment which pervades them.
Another excellent writer of pastorals was Zimorowicz, a native of Lemberg, who died at the early age of twenty-five.
Another writer of pastorals, but not of equal merit, was Jan Gawinski, a native of Cracow.
Philemon is of course a pure letter, and Philippians mainly so; the Pastorals, as their name implies, contain advice and instructions to the apostle's lieutenants, Timothy and Titus, in the temporary charge committed to them of churches that the apostle could not visit himself.
But there is an arguable case of some real weight against Colossians, Ephesians, Pastorals - least against Colossians and perhaps most against the Pastorals.
But it should be admitted that, especially in regard to Ephesians and Pastorals, there is a perceptible difference, (a) in style, and (b) in characteristic subject matter, from the standard epistles.
We observe that the Pastorals are omitted.
The occasional coincidences between the pastorals and Barnabas or Clemens Romanus do not prove anything more than a common milieu of thought, but the epistles were plainly familiar to Polycarp, who alludes to i Tim.
This indubitable use of the pastorals in Polycarp 8 throws the terminus ad quern of their composition back into the first decade of the 2nd century, 'and additional confirmation of this would be forthcoming were the evidence for their use in Ignatius more 6 The drawback was that, if Paul was soon to see his colleagues again (Titus i.
8 The pastorals soon passed into great favour in the early Church.
His conquests to the west and north-west led him among the Mongols of the Caspian and to the banks of the Ural and the Volga; 1 The pastorals in this aspect are closer to Clemens Romanus than to Ignatius.
During these terms of imprisonment his pen was not idle, as is amply shown by the very numerous letters, pastorals and exhortations which have been preserved; while during his intervals of liberty he was unwearied in the work of "declaring truth" in all parts of the country.
The pastorals themselves never mention any mission in Spain.
It seems improbable that Titus or any of the pastorals is directed against any one phase of contemporary heresy.'
By a natural recoil it produced licentiousness of conduct which the pastorals hotly denounce.
The method resembles that of the First Epistle of John, for although the errorists attacked in the latter manifesto are not those of the pastorals, and although the one writer eschews entirely the inner authority of the Spirit which the other posits, the same anti-gnostic emphasis on practical religion and stereotyped doctrine is felt in both.
The books bearing the names of James, Peter and Jude, together with the Pastorals (though these may contain fragments of genuine Pauline letters) and the Apocalypse, he regards as epistles.
The opposite view, which insists upon the definite character of the pastorals, is ably stated by A.
Yet such considerations do not operate against the literary judgment that the pastorals did not come from Paul's pen.
The words and phrases which are common to the pastorals and the rest of the Pauline epistles are neither so characteristic nor so numerous as those peculiar to the former, and the data of style may be summed up in the verdict that they point to a writer who, naturally reproducing Paul's standpoint as far as possible, and acquainted with his epistles, yet betrays the characteristics of his later milieu in expressions as well as in ideas.'
Thus, of 174 words which occur in the pastorals alone (of all the New Testament writings), 97 are foreign to the Septuagint and 116 to the rest of the Pauline letters.
This proportion of a7ra Ebpnpfva is extremely large, when the size of the pastorals is taken into account, and its significance is heightened by the further fact that several of Paul's characteristic expressions tend to be replaced by others (e.g.
Pauline particles like apa, Sc6, Sam, E7recra, Iise and Moo 1 When the literary integrity of the epistle is maintained this allusion naturally drops to the ground, since the use of the epistle by Polycarp rules the earlier conjectures of Baur and others (who made the pastorals anti-Marcionite) out of court; besides, passages like i.
A number of Latinisms, unexampled in the rest of Paul's epistles, occur within the pastorals; whole families of new words, especially composite words (often compounded with a-privative, BEO-, KaXo -, 5 awcPpo -, 4cXo -), emerge with others, e.g.
He also translated the pastorals of Longus, wrote a tale called Diane de Castro, and defended, in a treatise on the origin of romance, the reading of fiction.
The verses of Diniz, essentially a love poet, are conventional in tone and form, but he can write pretty ballads and pastorals when he allows himself to be natural.
Doubtless, some of these features might be set down to Paul's amanuensis.6 But not all of them, more especially when the characteristic conceptions and ideas of the pastorals are taken into account.
Nor can it be argued that the characteristics of the pastorals are those of private letters; they are not private, nor even semi-private as they stand; besides, the only private note from Paul's hand (Philemon) bears no traces of the special diction exhibited in the epistles to Timothy and Titus.
Furthermore, throughout the pastorals, and especially in I Tim., there are traces of a wider acquaintance with Greek literature' than can be detected in the letters of Paul.
Of all the pastorals, I Tim.
De Wette, Mangold, Reuss, Bruckner, Pfleiderer, von Soden,McGiffert, S.Davidson, Bourquin, Clemen and Jalicher) conclude that the pastorals were written in this order (2 Tim., Titus, i Tim.).