Dumas, a native of the Alais district, where the disease was rampant, urged Pasteur to undertake its investigation.
Shortly afterwards the Pasteur family removed to Arbois, where Louis attended the Ecole primaire, and later the college of that place.
The veteran Biot whose acquaintance Pasteur had made, was incredulous.
In 1857 Pasteur decisively proved that fermentation was a physiological process, for he showed that the yeast which produced fermentation was no dead mass, as assumed by Liebig, but consisted of living organisms capable of growth and multiplication.
Liebig and Pasteur were in agreement on the point that fermentation is intimately connected with the presence of yeast in the fermenting liquid, but their explanations concerning the mechanism of fermentation were quite opposed.
He agreed with Pasteur that the presence of living cells is essential to the transformation of sugar into alcohol, but dissented from the view that the process occurs within the cell.
Pasteur found that, when cane sugar was fermented by yeast, 49.4% of carbonic acid and 51.1% of alcohol were produced; with expressed yeast juice cane sugar yields 47% of carbonic acid and 47.7% of alcohol.
Although the direct object of Pasteur was to prove a negative, yet it was on these experiments that sterilization as known to us was developed.
Pasteur first formulated the idea that bacteria are responsible for the diseases of fermented liquids; the corollary of this was a demand for pure yeast.
The Bacterium acidi lacti described by Pasteur decomposes milk sugar into lactic acid.
In the same year - apparently about June - he saw for the first time, and forthwith loved, the beautiful, intelligent and accomplished Mademoiselle Susan Curchod, daughter of the pasteur of Crassier.
According to Louis Pasteur, about oth of the sugar transformed under ordinary conditions in the fermentation of grape juice and similar saccharine liquids into alcohol and other products becomes converted into glycerin.
LOUIS PASTEUR (1822-1895), French chemist, was born, on the 27th of December 1822, at Dole, Franche-Comte, where his father carried on the business of a tanner.
Pasteur proved that the inactivity of the one acid depended upon the fact that it was composed of two isomeric constituents: one the ordinary or dextrorotary acid, and the other a new acid, which possessed an equally powerful left-handed action.
Thus at one step Pasteur gained a place of honour among the chemists of the day, and was immediately appointed professor of chemistry at the Faculte of Science at Strasburg, where he soon afterwards married Mlle Laurent, who proved herself to be a true and noble helpmeet.
Pasteur one day visited a brewery containing both sound and unsound beer.
"The chemical act of fermentation," writes Pasteur, "is essentially a correlative phenomenon of a vital act beginning and ending with it."
But we may ask, as Pasteur did, Why does beer or milk become sour on exposure to ordinary air?
The controversy on this question was waged with spirit on both sides; but in the end Pasteur came off victorious, and in a series of the most delicate and most intricate experimental researches he proved that when the atmospheric germs are absolutely excluded no changes take place.
Pasteur was now the acknowledged head of the greatest chemical movement of the time, the recipient of honours both from his own country and abroad, and installed at the E.
Not, however, was it without grave opposition from powerful friends in the Academy that Pasteur carried on his work.
Biot - who loved and admired him as a son - publicly announced that his enterprise was chimerical and the problem insoluble; Dumas evidently thought so too, for he advised Pasteur not to spend more of his time on such a subject.
"There is no greater charm," says Pasteur, "for the investigator than to make new discoveries; but his pleasure is heightened when he sees that they have a direct application to practical life."
Pasteur had the good fortune, and just reward, of seeing the results of his work applied to the benefit both of the human race and of the animal world.
The first disease investigated by Pasteur was that of chicken cholera, an epidemic which destroyed io% of the French fowls; after the application of the preventive method the death-rate was reduced to below i %.
Nevertheless Pasteur was bold enough to try.
Then, on the 14th of November 1888, the Institut Pasteur was founded.
At the inauguration of the institute Pasteur closed his oration with the following words: "Two opposing laws seem to me now in contest.
See Vie de Pasteur, by Rene Vallerey-Radot (Paris, 1900).
In 1888 a school of sericulture was founded by the public debt administration for the rearing of silkworms according to the Pasteur method.
Again, in the early years of the administration (1885), the Pasteur system of selection of silk-worms' eggs for the rearing of silkworms was introduced, and an " Institute of Sericulture " on modern lines was erected (1888) at Brusa for gratuitous instruction in silk-rearing to students from all parts of the empire.
Voltaire published his Le Cafe, ou l'Ecossaise (1760), Londres (really Geneva), as a translation from the work of Mr Hume, described as Pasteur de l'eglise d'Edimbourg, but Home seems to have taken no notice of the mystification.
Of the greatest importance is the alcoholic fermentation brought about by yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae seu vini); this follows the equation CH120 6 =2C 2 H 6 0+2CO 2, Pasteur considering 94 to 95% of the sugar to be so changed.
The names of Pasteur and Lister will descend to posterity as those of two of the greatest figures in the annals of medical science, and indeed of science in general, during the 19th century.
Pasteur (1895), x.
It was the concepts derived from the experimental methods of Harvey, Lavoisier, Liebig, Claude Bernard, Helmholtz, Darwin, Pasteur, Lister and others which, directly or indirectly, trained the eyes of clinicians to observe more closely and accurately; and not of clinicians only, but also of pathologists, such as Matthew Baillie, Cruveilhier, Rokitansky, Bright, Virchowto name but a few of those who, with (as must be admitted) new facilities for necropsies, began to pile upon us discoveries in morbid anatomy and histology.
In pathology, indeed, Virchow's (1821-1902) influence in the transfiguration of this branch of science may almost be compared to that of Darwin and Pasteur in their respective domains.
As the prevalence of the conceptions signified and inspired by the word "phlogiston" kept alive ontological notions of disease, so the dissipation of vitalistic conceptions in the field of physics prepared men's minds in pathology for the new views opened by the discoveries of Pasteur on the side of pathogeny, and of J.
Medicine and surgery are but two aspects of one art; Pasteur shed light on both surgery and medicine, and when Lister, his disciple, penetrated into the secrets of wound fevers and septicaemia, he illuminated surgery and medicine alike, and, in the one sphere as in the other, co-operated in the destruction of the idea of "essential fevers" and of inflammation as an "entity."
The identity of the formulae and osazones of d-mannose and d-glucose showed that the stereochemical differences were situated at the carbon atom adjacent to the aldehyde group. Fischer applied a method indicated by Pasteur in converting dextro into laevo-tartaric acid; he found that both d-mannonic and d-gluconic acids (the latter is yielded by glucose on oxidation) were mutually convertible by heating with quinoline under pressure at 140°.
The first filter which was more or less completely impermeable to bacteria was the Pasteur-Chamberland, which was devised in Pasteur's laboratory, and is made of dense biscuit porcelain.
And the Prophetic Apocalypse" (1900); Benazech, "Le Prophetisme chretienne depuis les origines jusqu'au pasteur d'Hermas," Thesis, (Paris, 1901).
In 1865 Pasteur undertook a Government commission for the investigation of the malady.
Pasteur brought out the fact that the malady had existed from remote periods and in many unsuspected localities.
The cure proposed by Pasteur was simply to take care that the stock whence graine was obtained should be healthy, and the offspring would then be healthy also.
Pasteur showed that the origin of the disease proceeded from microscopic organisms called ferments and vitrios.
Pasteur prosecuted his investigations into the silkworm disease at Alais, and the town has dedicated a bust to his memory.
An antitoxic serum has been prepared from horses by the Institut Pasteur in France, but has not met with success.
A commission, consisting of Sir Lawrence Jenkins, Lieut.-Colonel Bomford, M.D., principal of the Medical College, Calcutta, and Major Semple, R.A.M.C., director of the Pasteur Institute, Kasauli, was appointed by the government of India to inquire into the disaster.
Pasteur filled glass tubes entirely with new wine and then sealed them up. It was found that wine so treated remained unchanged in taste and flavour for years.
It was found by Pasteur that by heating wine out of contact with air to about 66° C. the various germs causing wine maladies could be checked in their action or destroyed.
Pasteur, Ann., 1853, 88, p. 212); by heating tartaric or racemic acid for some time with water to 165° C.; by the oxidation of laevulose; and by the oxidation of phenol or maleic acid with an alkaline solution of potassium permanganate (0.
Of late years enormous impulse has been given to our knowledge of the causation of disease by microbes, through the works of Gaspard, who injected putrid matter into the veins of a living animal; by Villemin, who discovered that tuberculosis is infective; by Davaine; and especially by Pasteur, Koch and others too numerous to mention, who have worked, and are still working, at the microbic causation of disease with marvellous success.
Pasteur found that the germs of anthrax could be cultivated outside the body and their virulence weakened either by growing them at too high a temperature or in an unsuitable medium.
When Pasteur in 1857 showed that the lactic fermentation depends on the presence of an organism, it was already known from the researches of Schwann (1837) and Helmholtz (1843) that fermentation and putrefaction are intimately connected with the presence of organisms derived from the air, and that the preservation of putrescible substances depends on this principle.
In 1862 Pasteur placed it beyond reasonable doubt that the ammoniacal fermentation of urea is due to the action of a minute Schizomycete; in 1864 this was confirmed by van Tieghem, and in 1874 by Cohn, who named the organism Micrococcus ureae.
Pasteur and Cohn also pointed out that putrefaction is but a special case of fermentation, and before 1872 the doctrines of Pasteur were established with respect to Schizomycetes.
In 1862 Pasteur repeated and extended such experiments, and paved the way for a complete explanation of the anomalies; Cohn in 1872 published confirmatory results; and it became clear that no putrefaction can take place without bacteria or some other living organism.
Louis Pasteur came along around this same time and proffered the germ theory of disease and a vaccine for rabies.