Dumas, a native of the Alais district, where the disease was rampant, urged Pasteur to undertake its investigation.
The veteran Biot whose acquaintance Pasteur had made, was incredulous.
In 1857 Pasteur decisively proved that fermentation was a physiological process, for he showed that the yeast which produced fermentation was no dead mass, as assumed by Liebig, but consisted of living organisms capable of growth and multiplication.
Liebig and Pasteur were in agreement on the point that fermentation is intimately connected with the presence of yeast in the fermenting liquid, but their explanations concerning the mechanism of fermentation were quite opposed.
He agreed with Pasteur that the presence of living cells is essential to the transformation of sugar into alcohol, but dissented from the view that the process occurs within the cell.
Pasteur found that, when cane sugar was fermented by yeast, 49.4% of carbonic acid and 51.1% of alcohol were produced; with expressed yeast juice cane sugar yields 47% of carbonic acid and 47.7% of alcohol.
Although the direct object of Pasteur was to prove a negative, yet it was on these experiments that sterilization as known to us was developed.
Pasteur first formulated the idea that bacteria are responsible for the diseases of fermented liquids; the corollary of this was a demand for pure yeast.
The Bacterium acidi lacti described by Pasteur decomposes milk sugar into lactic acid.
In the same year - apparently about June - he saw for the first time, and forthwith loved, the beautiful, intelligent and accomplished Mademoiselle Susan Curchod, daughter of the pasteur of Crassier.
According to Louis Pasteur, about oth of the sugar transformed under ordinary conditions in the fermentation of grape juice and similar saccharine liquids into alcohol and other products becomes converted into glycerin.
LOUIS PASTEUR (1822-1895), French chemist, was born, on the 27th of December 1822, at Dole, Franche-Comte, where his father carried on the business of a tanner.
Shortly afterwards the Pasteur family removed to Arbois, where Louis attended the Ecole primaire, and later the college of that place.
Pasteur proved that the inactivity of the one acid depended upon the fact that it was composed of two isomeric constituents: one the ordinary or dextrorotary acid, and the other a new acid, which possessed an equally powerful left-handed action.
Thus at one step Pasteur gained a place of honour among the chemists of the day, and was immediately appointed professor of chemistry at the Faculte of Science at Strasburg, where he soon afterwards married Mlle Laurent, who proved herself to be a true and noble helpmeet.
Pasteur one day visited a brewery containing both sound and unsound beer.
"The chemical act of fermentation," writes Pasteur, "is essentially a correlative phenomenon of a vital act beginning and ending with it."
But we may ask, as Pasteur did, Why does beer or milk become sour on exposure to ordinary air?
The controversy on this question was waged with spirit on both sides; but in the end Pasteur came off victorious, and in a series of the most delicate and most intricate experimental researches he proved that when the atmospheric germs are absolutely excluded no changes take place.
Pasteur was now the acknowledged head of the greatest chemical movement of the time, the recipient of honours both from his own country and abroad, and installed at the E.
Not, however, was it without grave opposition from powerful friends in the Academy that Pasteur carried on his work.
Biot - who loved and admired him as a son - publicly announced that his enterprise was chimerical and the problem insoluble; Dumas evidently thought so too, for he advised Pasteur not to spend more of his time on such a subject.
"There is no greater charm," says Pasteur, "for the investigator than to make new discoveries; but his pleasure is heightened when he sees that they have a direct application to practical life."
Pasteur had the good fortune, and just reward, of seeing the results of his work applied to the benefit both of the human race and of the animal world.
The first disease investigated by Pasteur was that of chicken cholera, an epidemic which destroyed io% of the French fowls; after the application of the preventive method the death-rate was reduced to below i %.
Nevertheless Pasteur was bold enough to try.
Then, on the 14th of November 1888, the Institut Pasteur was founded.
At the inauguration of the institute Pasteur closed his oration with the following words: "Two opposing laws seem to me now in contest.
See Vie de Pasteur, by Rene Vallerey-Radot (Paris, 1900).
In 1888 a school of sericulture was founded by the public debt administration for the rearing of silkworms according to the Pasteur method.
When Pasteur in 1857 showed that the lactic fermentation depends on the presence of an organism, it was already known from the researches of Schwann (1837) and Helmholtz (1843) that fermentation and putrefaction are intimately connected with the presence of organisms derived from the air, and that the preservation of putrescible substances depends on this principle.
In 1862 Pasteur placed it beyond reasonable doubt that the ammoniacal fermentation of urea is due to the action of a minute Schizomycete; in 1864 this was confirmed by van Tieghem, and in 1874 by Cohn, who named the organism Micrococcus ureae.
Pasteur and Cohn also pointed out that putrefaction is but a special case of fermentation, and before 1872 the doctrines of Pasteur were established with respect to Schizomycetes.
In 1862 Pasteur repeated and extended such experiments, and paved the way for a complete explanation of the anomalies; Cohn in 1872 published confirmatory results; and it became clear that no putrefaction can take place without bacteria or some other living organism.
Pasteur found that the germs of anthrax could be cultivated outside the body and their virulence weakened either by growing them at too high a temperature or in an unsuitable medium.
Of late years enormous impulse has been given to our knowledge of the causation of disease by microbes, through the works of Gaspard, who injected putrid matter into the veins of a living animal; by Villemin, who discovered that tuberculosis is infective; by Davaine; and especially by Pasteur, Koch and others too numerous to mention, who have worked, and are still working, at the microbic causation of disease with marvellous success.
Pasteur, Ann., 1853, 88, p. 212); by heating tartaric or racemic acid for some time with water to 165° C.; by the oxidation of laevulose; and by the oxidation of phenol or maleic acid with an alkaline solution of potassium permanganate (0.
Pasteur filled glass tubes entirely with new wine and then sealed them up. It was found that wine so treated remained unchanged in taste and flavour for years.
It was found by Pasteur that by heating wine out of contact with air to about 66° C. the various germs causing wine maladies could be checked in their action or destroyed.
An antitoxic serum has been prepared from horses by the Institut Pasteur in France, but has not met with success.
A commission, consisting of Sir Lawrence Jenkins, Lieut.-Colonel Bomford, M.D., principal of the Medical College, Calcutta, and Major Semple, R.A.M.C., director of the Pasteur Institute, Kasauli, was appointed by the government of India to inquire into the disaster.