To appreciate this, it is sufficient to enumerate the birds without the critical muscle: Passeriformes and Coraciiformes, without exception; Ardeae and Podiceps; lastly various genera of storks, pigeons, parrots, petrels and auks.
The Tracheophonae among the Passeriformes, the possessors of this specialized although low type of syrinx, form a tolerably well-marked group, entirely neotropical.
This way of using the characters of the syrinx for the classification of the Passeriformes seems simple, but it took a long time to accomplish.
Birds being of all animals most particularly adapted for extended and rapid locomotion, it became necessary for him to eliminate from his consideration those groups, be they small or large, which are of more or less universal occurrence, and to ground his results on what was at that time commonly known as the order Insessores or Passeres, comprehending the orders now differentiated as Passeriformes, Coraciiformes and Cuculiformes, in other words the mass of arboreal birds.
It is singular that only the first three of them belong to the order Passeriformes, a proportion which is not maintained in any other tropical region.
These are, again in an ascending direction, connected with the Coraciiformes, out of which have arisen the Passeriformes, and these have blossomed into the Oscines, which, as the apotheosis of bird life, have conquered the whole inhabitable world.
A ccipitres), Tinamiformes, Galliformes (Sub orders: Mesites, Turnices, Galli, Opisthocomi), Gruiformes, Charadriiformes (Sub-orders: Limicolae, Lari, Pterocles, Columbae), Cuculiformes (Sub-orders: Cuculi, Psittaci), Coraciiformes (Sub-orders: Coraciae, Striges, Caprimulgi, Cypseli, Colii, Trogones, Pici), Passeriformes (Sub-orders: Passeres Anisomyodae, Passeres Diacromyodae).