Home industries such as the metal-working round Keswick (founded in 1884 by Canon and Mrs Rawnsley), executed during hours of idleness by field labourers and railway porters, educate the passer-by as well as the worker.
In this memoir by Gergonne, the theory of duality is very clearly and explicitly stated; for instance, we find " da p s la geometrie plane, a chaque theoreme ii en repond necessairement un autre qui s'en deduit en echangeant simplement entre eux les deux mots points et droites; tandis que dans la geometrie de l'espace ce sont les mots points et plans qu'il faut echanger entre eux pour passer d'un theoreme a son correlatif "; and the plan is introduced of printing correlative theorems, opposite to each other, in two columns.
A species of Haemadipsa of Ceylon attaches itself to the passer-by and draws blood with so little irritation that the sufferer is said to be aware of its presence only by the trickling from the wounds produced.
The typical Annamese dwelling is open to the gaze of the passer-by during the day; at night a sort of partition of bamboo is let down.
The wailing cry' and the frantic gestures of the cock bird in the breeding-season will tell any passer-by that a nest or brood is near; but, unless he knows how to look for it, nothing save mere chance will enable him to find it.
It was a custom to make a cairn of stones near the wayside statues of Hermes, each passer-by adding a stone; the significance of the practice, which is found in many countries, is discussed by Frazer (Golden Bough, 2nd ed., iii.
The mountain-finches may be regarded as pointing first to the rock-sparrows (Petronia) and then to the true sparrows (Passer); while the grosbeaks pass into many varied forms and throw out a very well marked form - the bullfinches (Pyrrhula).
Of schools or colleges for the purposes of a higher education befitted to the sons of noblemen and the more wealthy merchants there are absolutely none; but the village school is an ever-present and very open spectacle to the passer-by.
The mountain sparrow (Passer montana) is abundant in Java and Singapore in a uniform equatorial climate, and also inhabits Britain and a considerable portion of northern Europe.
Among gallinaceous birds besides the red-legged partridge, which is met with everywhere on the steppes, there are found also the Pterocles alchita and P. arenarius; and among the birds of other orders are the southern shrike (Lanius meridianalis), the Spanish sparrow (Passer cyaneus), and, the blue magpie (Cyano pica cooki).
Some of the passerine birds have been the most widely distributed, especially the house-sparrow (Passer domesticus), which is now an integral, and very troublesome, part of the fauna in the Australasian States and in North America.