All of the passengers sighed deeply and many clapped.
Accidents to passengers other than those caused by collisions or derailments of trains are very largely due to causes which it is fair to class either as unavoidable or as due mainly to the fault or carelessness of the victim himself.
Other causes 5 863 5 836 Total of passengers 107 3,388 125 3,502 Servants:- II.
In cases where statutes did touch the question of regulation, they had to do with the operation of trains and with the provision of facilities for shippers and passengers, rather than with questions of rates.
The safety of passengers is, indeed, the first care of the railway manager; but the employes, exposed to many risks from which the passengers are protected, must be looked after.
The engine-bell tells the passengers that they are coming to a station, and it tells the people to keep out of the way.
1909, but in the meantime passengers were conveyed by road over the pass.
The changes in air pressure caused the health problems for some passengers on the airplane.
Such statistics are studied mainly with the object of learning the lessons which they may afford as to preventive measures for the future; and from this point of view the most important element is the single item of passengers killed in train accidents (a 1).
Item I shows no passengers killed in train accidents during the year.
This was the case once before, in 1901; and the total of fatal accidents to passengers and servants, taken together, has in several years been very low (1896, eight; 1901, eight; 1902, ten; 1904, thirteen), but never before was it down to six.
Table Xii.-Detail'Causes Of Certain Accidents Passengers:- a.
13 236 44 1 5,577 55 15,701 509 21,514 5 II 50 30 278 115 169 18 Item 2, Passengers:- I.
Total of passengers 1907.
The item " passengers killed " includes those on some electric railways, which presumably are not covered in the statement here given; also passengers in freight trains, &c. Under `' employees " this table includes men in shops, &c., not shown in Table XIV.
(24,832 m.), the number of persons employed on them was rather less than 300,000, the number of passengers carried annually being between 450 and 500 millions.
The number of passengers (36) killed in train accidents in 1907 was equal to o 0759 per million passengers carried and o o024 per million kilometres travelled by passengers, or 0.1503 per million kilometres travelled by trains.
Passengers Servants Other accidents, due to railway operations Passengers and others Servants Other accidents, victim's own fault - Passengers and others.
576 1254 The most significant item in the table, 36 passengers killed in train accidents, is perhaps to be considered as abnormally large, the totals under this head for the preceding six years beginning with 1901 being 7, 35, 3, 18, 4, 14, or an average of 11.57 per year.
The totals of passengers killed and injured in train accidents are not separated from those killed and injured from other causes, but ratios are given showing that for four years no passengers were killed in this class.
2 7 Passengers Servants..
When water ballast is employed the water is filled into a tank in the bottom of the wagon or car, its quantity, if passengers are carried, being regulated by the number ascending or descending.
Passengers and goods are generally in different and sometimes in distant positions, the place selected for each being that which is most convenient for the traffic. The passenger station abuts on the main line, or, at termini, forms the natural terminus, at a place as near as can conveniently be obtained to the centre of the population which constitutes the passenger traffic; and preferably its platforms should be at or near the ground level, for convenience of access.
G g pavement to enable them to discharge their passengers and luggage without delay.
Occasionally on a double-track railway one platform placed between the tracks serves both of them; this " island " arrangement, as it is termed, has the advantage that more tracks can be readily added without disturbance of existing buildings, but when it is adopted the exit from the trains is at the opposite side to that which is usual, and accidents have happened through passengers alighting at the usual side without noticing the absence of a platform.
In the United Kingdom, as in Europe generally, the vehicles used on passenger trains include firstclass carriages, second-class carriages, third-class carriages, composite carriages containing compartments for two or more classes of passengers, dining or restaurant carriages, sleeping carriages, mail carriages or travelling post offices, luggage brake vans, horse-boxes and carriage-trucks.
Gradually, however, the accommodation improved, and by the middle of the 19th century second-class passengers had begun to enjoy " good glass windows and cushions on the seat," the fares they paid being about 2d.
A mile, third-class passengers paying 14 d.
On the continent of Europe there are occasionally four classes, but though the local fares are often appreciably lower than in Great Britain, only first and second class, sometimes only first class, passengers are admitted to the fastest trains, for which in addition a considerable extra fare is often required.
In America and other countries where distances are great and passengers have to spend several days continuously in a train sleeping and restaurant cars are almost a necessity, and accordingly are to be found on most important through trains.
Such cars in the United States are largely owned, not by the railway companies over whose lines they run, but by the Pullman Car Company, which receives the extra fees paid by passengers for their use.
The first dining car in England was run experimentally by the Great Northern railway between London and Leeds in 1879, and now such vehicles form a common feature on express trains, being available for all classes of passengers without extra charge beyond the amount payable for food.
The introduction of corridor carriages, enabling passengers to walk right through the trains, greatly increased their usefulness.
Long, and contained four compartments for first-class passengers or five for second or third class, carrying in the latter case fifty persons.
For instance, fourwheeled bogie third-class corridor carriages employed on the Midland railway at the beginning of the 10th century weighed nearly 25 tons, and had bodies measuring 50 ft.; yet they held only 36 passengers, because not only had the number of compartments been reduced to six, as compared with seven in the somewhat shorter carriage of 1885, by the introduction of a lavatory at each end, but each compartment held only 6 persons, instead of 10, owing to the narrowing of its width by the corridor.
The seats, holding two persons, are placed transversely on each side of the central passage, and have reversible backs, so that passengers can always sit facing the direction in which the train is travelling.
The opening of the doors was apt to cause a disagreeable draught through the car in cold weather, and passengers occasionally fell from the open platform, or were blown from it, when the train was moving.
The application of vestibules is practically limited to trains making long journeys, as it is an obstruction to the free ingress and egress of passengers on local trains that make frequent stops.
Methods of carrying goods and passengers have developed in accordance with the requirements of those conditions.
The superiority, so far as the convenience of passengers is concerned, of an elevated over an underground railway, when both are worked by steam locomotives, and the great economy and rapidity of construction, led to the quick development and extension of this general design.
Underground railways are of three general types: the one of extreme depth, built by tunnelling methods, usually with the shield and without regard to the surface topography, where the stations are put at such depth as to require lifts to carry the passengers from the station platform to the street level.
This was only .effected after great opposition from the ultra-Conservatives, but once accomplished the facilities were gladly accepted by all classes, and the traffic both in goods and passengers is already enormous.
On the faces of the buttresses below the statues are marble alto-reliefs illustrating scenes from the early history of the Pilgrims. On high panels between the buttresses are the names of the passengers of the "Mayflower."
Devorgilla's bridge, below it, built of stone in 1280, originally consisted of nine arches (now reduced to three), and is reserved in spite of its massive appearance for foot passengers only, as is also the suspension bridge opened in 1875.
It is served directly by the Chesapeake & Ohio railway, and indirectly by the New York, Philadelphia & Norfolk (Pennsylvania System), passengers and freight being carried by steamer from the terminus at Cape Charles; by steamboat lines connecting with the principal cities along the Atlantic coast, and with cities along the James river; by ferry, connecting with Norfolk and Portsmouth; and by electric railway (3 m.) to Hampton and (1 2 m.) to Newport News.
It was of about 180 tons burden, and in company with the "Speedwell" sailed from Southampton on the 5th of August 1620, the two having on board 120 Pilgrims. After two trials the "Speedwell" was pronounced unseaworthy, and the "Mayflower" sailed alone from Plymouth, England, on the 6th of September with the zoo (or 102) passengers, some 41 of whom on the lzth of November (o.s.) signed the famous "Mayflower Compact" in Provincetown Harbor, and a small party of whom, including William Bradford, sent to choose a place for settlement, landed at what is now Plymouth, Massachusetts, on the 11th of December (21st N.s.), an event which is celebrated, as Forefathers' Day, on the 22nd of December.
The cabmen he met and their passengers, the carpenters cutting the timber for new houses with axes, the women hawkers, and the shopkeepers, all looked at him with cheerful beaming eyes that seemed to say: Ah, there he is!
On the way to the pool, with Pumpkin and the Texas widow as his passengers, Pumpkin told Dean that Langstrom had recruited him for the Fourth of July water fight.
Many of the passengers were ill and others whimpered and whined as the plane dropped, rose and rolled in the churning gusts, riding the heavy winds like a cork in a whirlpool.
Receipts in Expenses in Passengers Goods carried Year.
Must of the merchandise and passengers bound for and hailing from foreign ports sail under foreign flags.
The principal business of the new railway was the conveyance of minerals and goods, but from the first passengers insisted upon being carried, and on the 10th of October 1825 the company began to run a daily coach, called the " Experiment," to carry six inside, and from fifteen to twenty outside, making the journey from Darlington to Stockton and back in two hours.
It is reported to have hauled 40 or 50 passengers in 4 or 5 cars at a speed of 16-21 m.
So much of the expense of the handling, both of freight and of passengers, was independent of the length of the journey that a mileage rate sufficiently large for short distances was unnecessarily burdensome for long ones, and was bound to destroy long-distance traffic, if the theory were consistently applied.
It was believed by its advocates that this system of prescribing the conditions of construction and operation of lines could promote public safety, prevent waste of capital and secure passengers and shippers against extortionate rates.
The first act which has reference to the safety of passengers is the Regulation of Railways Act of 1842, which obliges every railway company to give notice to the Board of Trade of its intention to open the railway for passenger traffic, and places upon that public department the duty of inspecting the line before the opening of it takes place..
D.*) Accident Statistics Statistics of railway accidents may be divided into three classes: casualties (a) to passengers, (b) to servants or employ& and (c) to other persons; and again into (t) train accidents, (2) accidents to persons doing work on or about trains and (3) other accidents.
Table X.-Casualties On The Railways Of The United Kingdom 1908.1907.In Passengers:- Billed.
Workmen are killed and injured in this way, both while on duty and when going to and from their work; passengers, with or without right, go in front of trains at stations and at highway crossings at grade level; and trespassers are killed and injured in large numbers on railways everywhere, at and near stations, at crossings, and out on the open road, where they have no shadow of right.