About 1750), an able, cruel and unscrupulous man, subdued the neighbouring pashas and chiefs, crushed the Suliotes and Khimarrhotes, and exercised a practically independent sovereignty from the Adriatic to the Aegean.
The administration of kazas, or cantons, was usually entrusted to the cadis and the holders of the more important fiefs; the sanjaks, or departments, were ruled by alai beys or mir-i-livas (colonels or brigadiers), pashas with one horsetail; the vilayets, or provinces, by beylerbeys or mir-i-mirans (lord of lords), pashas with two horse-tails; these were all originally military officers, who, in addition to their administrative functions, were charged with the duty of mustering and commanding the feudal levies in war time.
The duties of the other viziers were limited to attending the divan; they were called kubbe or cupola viziers from the fact that the council met under a cupola; they were pashas with three horse-tails, and were attended by large retinues, having generally achieved distinction as beylerbeys.
In the political writings of Reshid and `Akif Pashas we have the first clear note of change; but the man to whom more than to any other the new departure owes its success is Shinasi Effendi, who employed it (1859) for poetry as well as for prose.
KMOrris, ancient KX 7rrns, a thief, a brigand), and during the 16th century the Turkish pashas came to terms with some of them, and these men were allowed to retain their local customs, and were confirmed in the possession of certain districts, while in return they undertook some duties, such as the custody of the highroads.
The beylerbeys were replaced in 1587 by pashas sent triennially by the Porte.
But the authority of these pashas, strangers to the country, was always precarious.
After some fruitless attempts Turkey ceased to send pashas to Algiers - where they were not allowed even to land - and thus recognized the de facto independence of this singular republic. The authority of the deys, moreover, was scarcely more solid than that of the pashas.
See EGYPT: History; also the accounts of Arabi in Khedives and Pashas, by C. F.
Baker Pashas force was termed constabulary, yet his men were all old soldiers, though new to their gallant leader and to the small band of their brave but strange British officers.
In 1517 Egypt became part of the Ottoman empire and was governed by pashas sent from Constantinople, whose influence about 1707 gave way to that of ~fficials chosen from the Mamelukes who bore the title Sheik al-balad.
After the episode of the French occupation, government by pashas was restored; Mehemet Ali (appointed pasha in.
The reason for these mutinies was the attempt made by successive pashas to put a stop to the extortion called Tulbah, a forced payment exacted by the troops from the inhabitants of the country by the fiction of debts requiring to be discharged, which led to grievous ill-usage.
Ismail held this office for sixteen years, while the pashas were constantly being changed, and succeeded in reconciling the two factions of Mamelukes.
An attempt made by one of the pashas to rid himself of these two persons by a coup detat signally failed owing to the loyalty of their armed supporters, who released Ibrahlm and Rilwan from prison and compelled the pasha to fly to Constantinople.
The wretched captives were then chained and left in the court.
Al-Alfi offered his submission on the condition of the cession of the Fayum and other provinces; but this was refused, and that chief gained two successive victories over the pashas troops, many of whom deserted to him.
Al-AlfI was at that time besieging Damanhur, and he gained a signal victory over the pashas troops; but the dissensions of the beys destroyed their last chance of a return to power.
Many of them took up their abode in Cairo, but tranquillity was not secured; several times they met the pashas forces in battle and once gained a signal victory.
Having taken coffee, they formed in procession, and, preceded and followed by the pashas troops, slowly descended the steep and narrow road leading to the great gate of the citadel; but as soon as the Mamelukes arrived at the gate it was suddenly closed before them.
To these troops their chief now made known the pashas orders to massacre all the Mamelukes within the citadel; therefore, having returned Final by another way, they gained the summits of the walls massacre and houses that hem in the road in which the Mameof the lukes were confined, and some stationed themselves Manic- upon the eminences of the rock through which that U es.
Among the pashas reasons for wishing to Sudan extend his rule southward were the desire to capture begun.
This movement was the last internal attempt to destroy the pashas authority.
The announcement of the pashas appointment had already been made in the usual way in the annual firman issued on the 3rd of May.
New firmans were issued which confined the pashas authority to Egypt, the Sinai peninsula and certain places on the Arabian side of the Red Sea, and to the Sudan.
Towards the end of 1847 the aged pashas mind began to give way, and by the following June he was no longer capable of administering the government.
Consult also Khedives and Pashas (London, 1884), by C. F.
Ali's authority in the great part of the peninsula subject to him now overshadowed that of the sultan; and Mahmud II., whose whole policy had been directed to destroying the overgrown power of the provincial pashas, began to seek a pretext for overthrowing the Lion of Iannina,whose all-devouring ambition seemed to threaten his own throne.
The sultan's policy had been consistently directed to crushing the overgrown power of his vassals; in the spring of 1831 two rebellious pashas, Hussein of Bosnia and Mustafa of Scutari, had succumbed to his arms; and, since he was surrounded and counselled by the personal enemies of the pasha of Egypt, it was likely that, so soon as he should feel himself strong enough, he would deal in like manner with Mehemet Ali.
15: " Yea, even their ` boys ' lorded it over the people "), under a tyranny of pashas of the worst type (verses ii f.).
Pashas are of three grades, formerly distinguished by the number of horse-tails (three, two and one respectively) which they were entitled to display as symbols of authority when on campaign.
Like pashas they rarely held their office more than three years, it being the natural policy of the Porte to multiply such lucrative nominations.
Four pashas were among the slain; over a hundred banners fell into the Moldavian hands; and only a few survivors succeeded in reaching the Danube.
They were thus mere puppets of the Divan, and could be deposed and shifted with the same facility as so many pashas - an object of Turkish policy, as each change was a pretext for a new levy of baksheesh.
During the succeeding epoch of rebellion at Acre under Jezzar and Abdullah pashas, Beirut declined to a small town of about 10,000 souls, in dispute between the Druses, the Turks and the pashas, - a state of things which lasted till Ibrahim Pasha captured Acre in 1832.
Hunyadi, at the head of the vanguard, crossed the Balkans through the Gate of Trajan, captured Nish, defeated three Turkish pashas, and, after taking Sofia, united with the royal army and defeated Murad II.
From 1587 till 1659, they were ruled by Turkish pashas, sent from Constantinople to govern for three years; but in the latter year a military revolt in Algiers reduced the pashas to nonentities.