They are also the direct antitheses to the scepticism of Montaigne and Pascal, to the materialism of Gassendi and Hobbes, and to the superstitious anthropomorphism which defaced the reawakening sciences of nature.
Not, of course, that they meant deliberate evil; Pascal expressly credits them with good intentions.
Pascal had already shown how philosophical scepticism might be employed as a bulwark for faith, and Glanvill follows in the same track.
KOSHER, or Kasher (Hebrew clean, right, or fit), the Jewish term for any food or vessels for food made ritually fit for use, in contradistinction to those pascal, unfit, and terefah, forbidden.
Pascal and P. de Fermat had initiated he brought very nearly to perfection; but the demonstrations are so involved, and the omissions in the chain of reasoning so frequent, that the Theorie analytique (1812) is to the best mathematicians a work requiring most arduous study.
Blaise Pascal and Immanuel Kant, among others, have Sextus's grouping in mind when they oppose themselves to " dogmatism " and " scepticism " legal or political, the decree (says Marcellus) of the legislative assembly; but it might also be of the emperor (Luke ii.
The peculiarly disjointed and fragmentary condition of the sentiments expressed by Pascal aggravates the appearance of universal doubt which is present in the Pensees, just as the completely unfinished condition of the work, from the literary point of view, constantly causes slighter or graver doubts as to the actual meaning which the author wished to express.
The latter's cheerful man-of-the-world scepticism is transfigured in Pascal to a deep distrust of human reason, in part, perhaps, from anti-Protestant motives.
Diophantine problems were revived by Gaspar Bachet, Pierre Fermat and Euler; the modern theory of numbers was founded by Fermat and developed by Euler, Lagrange and others; and the theory of probability was attacked by Blaise Pascal and Fermat, their work being subsequently expanded by James Bernoulli, Abraham de Moivre, Pierre Simon Laplace and others.
It was published with certain "remarks" on Pascal, mere offensive to orthodoxy than itself, and no mercy was shown to it.
In the hands of Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) hydrostatics assumed the dignity of a science, and in a treatise on the equilibrium of liquids (Sur l'equilibre des liqueurs), found among his manuscripts after his death and published in 1663, the laws of the equilibrium of liquids were demonstrated in the most simple manner, and amply confirmed by experiments.
Any additional pressure applied to the fluid will be y transmitted equally to every point in the case of a liquid; this principle of the transmissibility of 1 1 pressure was enunciated by Pascal, 1653, and FIG.
Saisset, AEnesideme, Pascal, Kant; Ritter and Preller, ï¿½ï¿½ 364-370.
Barbarossa by the anti-pope Pascal III.
Pascal treated these numbers in his Traite du triangle arithmetique (1665), using them to develop a theory of combinations and to solve problems in proba-, bility.
1875); Examples of Analytical Geometry of Three Dimensions (1858, 3rd ed., 1873); Mechanics (1867), History of the Mathematical Theory of Probability from the Time of Pascal to that of Lagrange (1865); Researches in the Calculus of Variations (1871); History of the Mathematical Theories of Attraction and Figure of the Earth from Newton to Laplace (1873); Elementary Treatise on Laplace's, Lame's and Bessel's Functions (1875); Natural Philosophy for Beginners (1877).
Trans., 1906), where the story is connected with the ceremonies performed in honour of Jupiter Tigillus and Juno Sororia; C. Pascal, Fatti e legende di Roma antica (Florence, 1903); 0.
EUGENIUS II., pope, was a native of Rome, and was chosen to succeed Pascal I.
The typical and by far the greatest example of the Christian sceptic is Pascal (1623-1662).
Saisset, Le Scepticisme: IEnesidbme, Pascal, Kant (1875).
Limax, a slug), a curve invented by Blaise Pascal and further investigated and named by Gilles Personne de Roberval.
Incited by the discoveries of Galileo, Pascal and Torricelli, he attempted the, creation of a vacuum.
His father was Etienne Pascal, president of the Court of Aids at Clermont; his mother's name was Antoinette Begon.
The Pascal family were Auvergnats by extraction as well as residence, had for many generations held posts in the civil service, and were ennobled by Louis XI.
The earliest anecdote of Pascal is one of his being bewitched and freed from the spell.
When Pascal was about seven years old his father gave up his official post at Clermont, and betook himself to Paris.
The Pascal family, some years after settling in Paris, had to go through a period of adversity.
Etienne Pascal, who had bought some of the hotel-de-ville rentes, protested against Richelieu's reduction of the interest, and to escape the Bastille had to go into hiding.
Mme d'Aiguillon's intervention in the matter was perhaps as powerful as Jacqueline's acting, and Richelieu gave Etienne Pascal (in 1641) the important and lucrative 2 In vi.
The family accordingly removed to the Norman capital, though Gilberte Pascal shortly after, on her marriage, returned to Clermont.
Then Pascal the elder was confined to the house by the consequences of an accident on the ice, and was visited by certain gentlemen of the neighbourhood who had come under the influence of Saint-Cyran and the Jansenists.
It does not appear that up to this time the Pascal family had been contemners of religion, but they now eagerly embraced the creed, or at least the attitude of Jansenism, and Pascal himself showed his zeal by informing against the supposed unorthodoxy of a Capuchin, the Pere Saint-Ange.
In a letter of Jacqueline's, dated the 27th of September, an account of a visit paid by Descartes to Pascal is given, which, like the other information on the relations of the two, give strong suspicion of mutual jealousy.
Descartes, however, gave Pascal the very sensible advice to stay in bed as long as he could (it may be remembered that the philosopher himself never got up till eleven) and to take plenty of beef-tea.
As early as May 1648 Jacqueline Pascal was strongly drawn to Port Royal, and her brother frequently accompanied her to its church.
She desired indeed to join the convent, but her father, who returned to Paris with the dignity of counsellor of state, disapproved of the plan, and took both brother and sister to Clermont, where Pascal remained for the greater part, of two years.
It is sufficient to say that at this time, despite the Rouen "conversion," there is no evidence to show that Pascal was in any way a recluse, an ascetic, or in short anything but a young man of great intellectual promise and performance, not indifferent to society, but of weak health.
It has sometimes been supposed that Pascal, from 1651 or earlier to the famous accident of 1654, lived a dissipated, extravagant, worldly, luxurious (though admittedly not vicious) life with his friend the duc de Roannez and others.
The extant letters of Pascal to the lady show no trace of any affection (stronger than friendship) between them.
It is said that he personally suggested to Pascal to try his hand, and that the first of the famous Provinciales (Provincial Letters, properly Lettres ecrites par Louis de Montalte ¢ un provincial de ses amis) was written in a few days, or, less probably, in a day.
Pascal and his friends rejoiced in proportion.
Accordingly the Pensees have always been a favourite exploring ground, not to say a favourite field of battle, to persons who take an interest in their problems. Speaking generally, their tendency is towards the combating of scepticism by a deeper scepticism, or, as Pascal himself calls it, Pyrrhonism, which occasionally goes the length of denying the possibility of any natural theology.
Pascal explains all the contradictions and difficulties of human life and thought by the doctrine of the Fall, and relies on faith and revelation alone to justify each other.
Hence conjecture, or at least inference, must always enter largely into any estimate of Pascal, except a purely literary one.
Pascal, equally discontented with the concordat, held fast to religion and continued to fight out the questions of difference with reason.
Among the old houses one, dating from the 16th century, was the birthplace of Blaise Pascal, whose statue stands in a neighbouring square.
1762 Pascal Taskin's tuning-fork, Paris..
Early in the modern period occurs the great name of Blaise Pascal (1623-1662).
Again, Pascal, unlike most apologists, belongs to the small company of saintly souls.
In addition to all these he published Denkwiirdigkeiten aus der Geschichte des Christentums (1823-1824, 2 vols., 1825, 3 vols., 1846); Das Eine and Mannichf altige des christlichen Lebens (1840); papers on Plotinus, Thomas Aquinas, Theobald Thamer, Blaise Pascal, J.
TRISECTRI X, a curve which is a variety of the limacon of Pascal, and named from its property of trisecting an angle.
Trans., 1906), where he comes to the conclusion that "instead of being the sixth rex of Rome, he was originally the rex serous, the priest of the cult of Diana Aricina transferred to the Aventine, the priest of the protecting goddess of fugitive slaves"; C. Pascal, Patti e legende di Roma antica (Florence, 1903); also O.
Compare the fine distinctions drawn by the casuists and attacked by Pascal in the twelfth of the Provincial Letters.
Pascal, than whom ' Usually a bow, sword, dagger or other small thing belonging to war.
These were exempted generally by Pope Pascal II.
BLAISE PASCAL (1623-1662), French religious philosopher and mathematician, was born at Clermont Ferrand on the 19th of June 1623.
He, his sister and their father returned to Paris in the late autumn of 1650, and in September of the next year Etienne Pascal died.
It seems that Pascal in driving to Neuilly was run away with by the horses, and would have been plunged in the river but that the traces fortunately broke.
Pascal and other members of Port Royal openly expressed their doubts about the place allowed to God in the system; the adherents of Gassendi met it by resuscitating atoms; and the Aristotelians maintained their substantial forms as of old; the Jesuits argued against the arguments for the being of God, and against the theory of innate ideas; whilst Pierre Daniel Huet (1630-1721), bishop of Avranches, once a Cartesian himself, made a vigorous onslaught on the contempt in which his former comrades held literature and history, and enlarged on the vanity of all human aspirations after rational truth.