In the gerundive and in the present participle Catalan differs from Provenal in still distinguishing the conjugation in it from that in Cr, resaying, for exampIe~ senhint.
For the passive voice, a fi is used, with the past participle of the required verb.
In the latter case the verb was probably in the participle, so that .f~nitt-Ln, they hear, is literally hearing are they.
The indicative use was soon given up and the pseudo-participle was employed only as predicate, especially indicating a state; e.g.
Seja, the imperative Se, sede, the gerundive sendo, the participle s/do, and some other tenses in the old language.
The past participle of verbs in er was formerly isdo (u t u s) in most cases; at present ido serves for all verbs in er and Cr, except some ten or twelve in which the participle has retained the Latin form accented on the radical: dicho, hecho, visto, &c. It ought to be added that the past participle in normal Castilian derives its theme not from the perfect, but from the infinitive: habido, sabido, from haber, saber, not from hubo, supo.
The pseudo-participle seems, by its inflexion, to have been the perfect of the original Semitic conjugation.
As in Provenal, the past participle of a large ntimber of verbs of the 2nd and 3rd conjugations is formed, not from the infinitive, but from the perfect (pogut, volgut, tingut suggest the perfects poch, volch, tinch, and not the infinitives poder, voler, tenir).
LEVANT (from the French use of the participle of lever, to rise, for the east, the orient), the name applied widely to the coastlands of the eastern Mediterranean Sea from Greece to Egypt, or, in a more restricted and commoner sense, to the Mediterranean coastlands of Asia Minor and Syria.
Pseudo-Participle.In very early texts this is the past indicative, but more commonly it is used in sentences such as, gm-n-f wi 11 kwl, he found me I stood, i.e.
Antghi, aghi), has likewise served fur the forination not only of the past participle but also of the infinitive (agher, habere, can only be explained by ach, 3rd person of the perfect); the infinitives with r paragogic (viurer, seurer, plonrer) are not used (viure, seure, ploure ilistead); in the conjugation of the present of the verb essar or esser, the 2iid pers.
Is the participle is used of the duty which was discharged by Mattithiah, Eliphelehu, Mikneiah, Obed-edom, Jeiel and Azaziah (and perhaps, if verse 20 is to be taken in close connexion with verse 21, by Zecharaiah, Aziel, Shemiramoth, Jeiel, Unni, Eliab, Maaseiah and Benaiah also) on one definite occasion.
The above, with the relative forms mentioned below, are supposed by Erman to be derived from the participle, which is placed first for emphasis: thus, t~mw tIn, hearing is the king; 1dm-f, for fdm-fy, hearing he is.