The name was borne also by four Parthian kings.
The Parthian king Arsaces, who was attacked by Antiochus III.
Artabanus II., like all Parthian princes, was much troubled by the opposition of the grandees.
But that party among the Parthian magnates which was hostile to Artabanus applied to Tiberius for a king of the race of Phraates.
Artabanus Iv., the last Parthian king, younger son of Vologaeses IV., who died A.D.
His father Anak, head of the Parthian clan of Suren, was bribed about the time of his birth (c. 257) by the Sassanid king of Persia to assassinate the Armenian king, Chosroes, who was of the old Arsacid dynasty, and father of Tiridates or Trdat, first Christian king of Armenia.
Vologaeses, however, thought it better to come to terms. It was agreed that both the Roman and Parthian troops should evacuate Armenia, that Tigranes should be dethroned, and the position of Tiridates recognized.
By them the Parthian War was brought to a conclusion in 165, but Verus and his army brought back with them a terrible pestilence, which spread through the whole empire.
Rose against the Parthian king, Artabanus, his aim was religious as well as political.
In this vicinity was situated, at the time of the Christian era, the Parthian city of Spasini-Charax, which was succeeded by Bahman Ardashir (Bamishir) under the Sassanians, and by Moharzi under the Arabs.
He was the real founder of the Parthian empire, which was of very limited extent until the final decay of the Seleucid empire, occasioned by the Roman intrigues after the death of Antiochus IV.
Tiridates adopted the name of his brother Arsaces, and after him all the other Parthian kings (who by the historians are generally called by their proper names), amounting to the number of about thirty, officially wear only the name Arsaces.
With very few exceptions only the name AP/AKHI (with various epithets) occurs on the coins of the Parthian kings, and the obverse generally shows the seated figure of the founder of the dynasty, holding in his hand a strung bow.
The name Arsaces of Persia is also borne by some kings of Armenia, who were of Parthian origin.
Her efforts were at first successful, but in 36 Antony left for the Parthian War and renewed his intrigue with Cleopatra.
Antiochus was occupied with his Parthian campaign and trusted that the Hellenized Jews would maintain their ascendancy with the aid of the provincial troops.
But Antipater found supplies for the army of Gabinius, who, despite Egyptian and Parthian distractions, restored order according to the will of Antipater.
So he could no more be high priest, and his life was spared only at the intercession of the Parthian Jews, who had a regard for the Asmonean prince.
300) India was invaded from the north by tribes partly of Parthian and partly of Turki (Yue-chi, &c.) origin.
227) the Parthian empire arose under the Arsacids in Khorasan and the adjacent districts.
The Parthian king was apparently granted peace on his submission.
4), who occupied Parthia and became the founder of the Parthian kingdom.
The origin and early history of the Parthian kingdom, of which we possess only very scanty information, is surrounded by fabulous legends, narrated by Arrian in his Parthica (preserved in Photius, cod.
They were archers fighting on horseback, and in their cavalry consisted the strength of the Parthian army; the infantry were mostly slaves, bought and trained for military service, like the janissaries and mamelukes.
But these Scythians soon amalgamated with the Parthian peasants.
Parthian (Pehlevi is the modern form of Parthawa) and the magnates themselves Pehlevans, i.e.
But the Arsacid kingdom never was a truly national state; with the Scythian and Parthian elements were united some elements of Greek civilization.
Probably belong the earliest Parthian coins; the oldest simply bear the name Arsaces; others, evidently struck after the coronation in Asaak, have the royal title (ifictutMcos 'Apob.Kcv).
His son, Arsaces II., was attacked by Antiochus III., the Great, in 209, who conquered the Parthian and Hyrcanian towns but at last granted a peace.
He died early, and was succeeded not by one of his sons but by his brother, Mithradates I., who became the founder of the Parthian empire.
For the later history of the Parthian empire reference should be made to Persia: Ancient History, and biographical articles on the kings.
The principal works on the Arsacid coinage are (after the earlier publications of Longperier, Prokesch-Ostan, &c.): Percy Gardner, The Parthian Coinage (London, 1877), and especially W.
30a); by this time Palmyra had become an important trade-post between the Roman and the Parthian states.
It was the Parthian wars of the 3rd century which brought Palmyra to the front, and for a brief period raised her to an almost.
193-211), presumably in recognition of their services in connexion with his Parthian expedition.
The East was then agitated by the advance of the Parthian Empire under the Sassanidae, and the Palmyrenes, in spite of their Roman honours and their Roman civilization, which did not really go much below the surface, were by no means prepared to commit themselves altogether to the Roman side.'
But Parthian ambitions made it necessary for the Palmyrenes to choose one side or other, and their choice leaned towards Rome, both because they dreaded interference with their religious freedom and because the Roman emperor was further off than the Persian king.
In 107 Hadrian was legatus praetorius of lower Pannonia, in 108 consul suffectus, in 112 archon at Athens, legatus in the Parthian campaign (113117), in 117 consul designatus for the following year, in 119 consul for the third and last time only for four months.
Babylonia was Parthian from 129.
45.4 When the Parthian Arsacids had conquered the lands east of the Euphrates in 12 9 B.C., they established their winter residence in Ctesiphon.
It afterwards became a province (Margiana) of the Graeco-Syrian, Parthian and Persian kingdoms. On the Margus - the Epardus of Arrian and now the Murghab - stood the capital of the district, Antiochia Margiana, so called after Antiochus Soter, who rebuilt the city founded by Alexander the Great.
He was the first Parthian king who entered into negotiations with Rome, then represented by Sulla, praetor of Cilicia (92 B.C.).
This depicts the journey of the soul from heaven to earth, its life in the body, and its final return to the heavenly home, under the figure of a Parthian prince who is sent from the court of his parents to the land of Egypt to fetch the serpent-guarded pearl; after a time of sloth and forgetfulness he fulfils his quest, and returns triumphant and again puts on the heavenly robe.
(Arsaces VI.), successor of his brother, Phraates I., came to the Parthian throne about 175 B.C. The first event of his reign was a war with Eucratides of Bactria, who tried to create a great Greek empire in the East.
In Seleucid and Parthian times the astronomical reports were of a thoroughly scientific character; how far the advanced knowledge and method they display may reach back we do not yet know.
It is remarkable that thus far no cemetery older than the Seleucid or Parthian period has been found in Assyria.
CHOSROES, in Middle and Modern Persian Khosrau (" with a good name "), a very common Persian name, borne by a famous king of the Iranian legend (Kai Khosrau); by a Parthian king, commonly called by the Greeks Osroes; and by the following two Sassanid kings.
GONDOPHARES, or Gondop' 1ernes, an Indo-Parthian king who ruled over the Kabul valley and the Punjab.
It was borne by several dynasts of Persis, when it formed an independent kingdom in the time of the Parthian empire (on their coins they call themselves Artakhshathr; one of them is mentioned by Lucian, Macrobii, 15), and by three kings of the Sassanid dynasty, who are better known under the modern form Ardashir.
When the Parthian War (162-5) broke out, Polyaenus, too old to share in the campaign, dedicated to the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus a work, still extant, called Strategica or Strategemata, a historical collection of stratagems and maxims of strategy written in Greek and strung together in the form of anecdotes.
Polyaenus intended to write a history of the Parthian War, but there is no evidence that he did so.
The never-ending Parthian problem confronted him, and with it were more or less connected a number of minor difficulties.
These changes could not but affect the relations of the Roman with the Parthian Empire, and the affairs of Armenia became in 114 the occasion of a war.
The assertion of Mommsen that the Tigris was a more defensible frontier than the desert line which separated the Parthian from the Roman Empire can hardly be accepted.
12, where there are allusions to Nero's confederacy with the Parthian kings with a view to the destruction of Rome.
16-17, which point to the belief that Rome would be destroyed by Nero and the Parthian kings.
At first, it seems, Odainath attempted to propitiate the Parthian monarch Shaptir (Sapor) I.; but when his gifts were contemptuously rejected (Petr.
Sanatruk), Parthian king.