Soon after the accession of Nero, Vologaeses (Vologasus), king of Parthia, overran Armenia, drove out Rhadamistus, who was under the protection of the Romans, and set his own brother Tiridates on the throne.
So Crassus departed to Parthia and died.
The rebellion spread to Cyprus; and when Trajan advanced from Mesopotamia into Parthia the Jews of Mesopotamia revolted.
In 209 Antiochus invaded Parthia, occupied the capital Hecatompylus and pushed forward into Hyrcania.
PARTHIA, the mountainous country S.E.
It was inhabited by an Iranian tribe, the Parthava of the inscriptions of Darius; the correct Greek form is HapOvaioc. Parthia became a province of the Achaemenian and then of the Macedonian Empire.
516); the capital of Parthia is known only by its Greek name Hecatompylos (" The Hundredgated ") from the many roads which met there (Polyb.
In 208 many Greek inhabitants are found in the towns of Parthia and Hyrcania (Polyb.
4), who occupied Parthia and became the founder of the Parthian kingdom.
And his own brother Antiochus Hierax, enabled him not only to maintain himself in Parthia, but also to conquer Hyrcania; but he was constantly threatened by Diodotus of Bactria (Justin xli.
But Seleucus was soon recalled by a rebellion in Syria, and Arsaces returned victorious to Parthia; " the day of this victory is celebrated by the Parthians as the beginning of their independence " (Justin xli.
Wroth, Catalogue of the Coins of Parthia in the British Museum (London, 1903), who carefully revised the statements of his predecessors.
Position of Palmyra as an intermediate state between the two great powers of Rome and Parthia was recognized and carefully watched.
The Taurus and Iran, (8) Cilicia, (9) Syria, (io) Mesopotamia, (11) Babylonia, (12) Susiana; in Africa, (13) Egypt; in Iran, (4) Persis, (15) Media, (16) Parthia and Hyrcania, (17) Bactria and Sogdiana, (18) Areia and Drangiana, (19) Carmania, (20) Arachosia and Gedrosia; lastly the Indian provinces, (21) the Paropanisidae (the Kabul valley), and (22) the province assigned to Pithon, the son of Agenor, upon the Indus (J.
The governors appointed by Alexander were, in the west of the empire, exclusively Macedonians; in the east, members of the Old Persian nobility were still among the satraps at Alexander's death, Atropates in Media, Phrataphernes in Parthia and Hyrcania, 1 For the events which brought this empire into being see Alexander The Great.
The eastern provinces of Iran went in 240 or thereabouts, when the Greek Diodotus made himself an independent king in Bactria(q.v.) and Sogdiana, and Tiridates, brother of Arsaces, a " Scythian " chieftain, conquered Parthia (so Arrian, but see Parthia).
In 140 B.C. he marched against Mithradates, king of Parthia, but was taken prisoner by treachery, and remained in captivity for ten years, regaining his throne about 129 B.C. on the death of his brother, Antiochus VII., who had usurped it.
The Great, king of Parthia (c. 120-88 B.C.), saved the kingdom from the Mongolian Sacae (Tochari), who had occupied Bactria and eastern Iran, and is said to have extended the limits of the empire (Justin 42, 2, where he is afterwards confused with Mithradates III.).
Wroth, Catalogue of the Coins of Parthia, p. 14 seq.; till then he only calls himself "the great king Arsakes") shows that he tried to conciliate his Greek subjects.
Taking advantage of the absence of the emperor in the Far East, and possibly by an understanding with the leaders of the rising in Armenia and the annexed portions of Parthia, the Jews all over the East had taken up arms at the same moment and at a given signal.
Lack of time alone prevented him from carrying into effect such projects as the piercing of the Isthmus of Corinth, whose object was to promote trade and intercourse throughout the Roman dominions, and we are told that at the time of his death he was contemplating the extension of the empire to its natural frontiers, and was about to engage in a war with Parthia with the object of carrying Roman arms to the Euphrates.
A Greek city in Parthia, near Rhagae.
Nicator in checking the aggressions of the rising power of Parthia under Mithradates I.
The lost territory, however, was recovered by Phraates III., and Mesopotamia was guaranteed to Parthia by the treaties of Lucullus and Pompey (66 B.C.).
The affairs of Armenia continued to be the source of friction between Parthia and Rome, and Nisibis changed hands several times.
Peace then prevailed till Carcalla's unprovoked attack on Parthia in 216, after he had reduced Osroene to a province.
For the later periods see PERSIA: History; HELLENISM; ROME: History; PARTHIA; SYRIAC LITERATURE; CALIPHATE and authorities there given.
There are references to the legendary escape of Nero to Parthia (119-124) and the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D.
43-44 see Wroth, Coins of Parthia, p. xlvi.).
Another followed in the next reign; and in 115, during Trajan's sojourn in the place with his army of Parthia, the whole site was convulsed, the landscape altered, and the emperor himself forced to take shelter in the circus for several days.
Having crossed the Euphrates he hastened to make himself master of Parthia; but he was defeated at Carrhae (53 B.C.) and taken prisoner by Surenas, the Parthian general, who put him to death by pouring molten gold down his throat.
In attempting to dethrone his brother, Philip Epiphanes, he was defeated by the Arabs and Parthians, was taken prisoner, and kept in confinement in Parthia by King Mithradates until his death in 88 B.C.
To these must be added Achaea in Parthia, and, farther to the east, Alexandria Anon in Aria.
Its gigantic extent, from the Aegean Parthia, to the Indus, everywhere offered points of attack to the enemy.
4); and Arsaces, a chief of the Parni or Aparnian Iranian nomad tribe (therefore often called Dahan Scythians), inhabiting the steppe east of the Caspianmade himself master of the district of Parthia (q.v.) in 248 B.C. He and his brother Tiridates were the founders of the Parthian kingdom, which, however, was confined within very modest limits during the following decades.
Against Arsaces of Parthia (209), and against Euthydemus of Bactria (208206), who had overthrown the dynasty of Diodotus (Polyb.
When Tigranes attempted to seize Cappadocia, and the Roman praetor P. Cornelius Sulla advanced against him, Mithradates in 92 B.C. concluded the first treaty between Parthia and Rome (Plut.
42: ut varia complurium regum in Parthia successione imperium accepit Orodes qui Crassum delevit).
There were indeed vassal states on every hand, but the actual possessions of the kingsthe provinces governed by their satrapsconsisted of a rather narrow strip of land, stretching from the Euphrates and north Babylonia through southern Media and Parthia as far as Arachosia (north-west Afghanistan), and following the course of the great trade-route which from time immemorial had carried the traffic between the west of Asia and India.
The districts west of Parthia) are:
After the victories of Pompey, however, the Romans claimed the suzerainty, so that, during the next decades and the expeditions of Crassus and Antony, they oscillated between Rome and Parthia, though their inclination was generally to the latter.
They were forced, however, to ackOowledge the suzerainty of Parthia, to which they stood in the same position as the Persians of Cyrus and his forefathers to the Median Empire (cf Strabo xv.
It was sprung from a predatory nomad tribe (the Parnian Dahae, Scythians) which had established itself in Khorasan (Parthia), on the borders of civilization, and thence gradually annexed further districts as the political situation or the weakness of its neighbors allowed.
But, in Parthia, these pu a Ofl.
But to these Oriental elements must be added that of Hellenism, the dominant world-culture which had penetrated into Parthia Relation and Media.
For the literature dealing with the Parthian Empire and numismatics, see PARTHIA, under which heading will be found a complete list of the kings, so far as we are able to reconstitute them.
Thus the wars between Parthia and Rome proceeded, not from the Parthiansdeeply injured though they were by the W~ With encroachments of Pompeybut from Rome herself.
Licinius rassus, the triumvir, ill 54 B.C., took the aggressive against Parthia, the occasion being favorable owing to the dynastic troubles between Orodes I., the son of Phraates .111., and his brother Mithradates III.
This the weakness of Parthia enabled him to effect without much difficulty.
He was sent to the East with extraordinary powers to settle a disputed succession in Parthia and Armenia.
To the provinces of Cappadocia and Commagene Roman governors were assigned; Parthia was conciliated by the banishment of the dethroned king Vonones.
We know nothing more about him and it is not certain whether the coins of a young beardless king, which are generally attributed to him, really belong to him (Wroth, Catalogue of the Coins of Parthia, p. L.
His chief publications are his translation of the History of Herodotus (in collaboration with Sir Henry Rawlinson and Sir Gardner Wilkinson), 1858-60; The Five Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World, 1862-67; The Sixth Great Oriental Monarchy (Parthian), 1873; The Seventh Great Oriental Monarchy (Sassanian), 1875; Manual of Ancient History, 1869; Historical Illustrations of the Old Testament, 1871; The Origin of Nations, 1877; History of Ancient Egypt, 1881; Egypt and Babylon, 1885; History of Phoenicia, 1889; Parthia, 1893; Memoir of Major-General Sir H.
Armenia, although politically dependent upon Rome, was connected with Parthia by geographical position, a common language and faith, intermarriage and similarity of arms and dress.
With the decay of the Seleucid power, weakened by Rome and Parthia, the old influx from the desert would recommence, and an Arabic element begin to show.
Its position " on the dangerous verge of two contending empires," Parthia and 12 On a possible restoration under the name of " Antioch on the Callirrhoe " see above.