The name was subsequently applied to the cella, or eastern chamber, of the Parthenon, which is exactly ioo ft.
The State Capitol (1840) is surmounted by a dome and modelled to some extent after the Parthenon and other buildings of ancient Greece; the first Capitol (begun in 1794) was burned in 1831.
The difference is much like that between the Parthenon and the Niobids, or between Jacopo Avanzi and Caracci.
Some pieces of sculpture were found here, among them fragments of the Parthenon and a singular relief of Asclepius with a kneeling woman suppliant.
Sphinxes were represented on the throne of Apollo at Amyclae and on the metopes at Selinus; in the best period of Greek art a sphinx was sculptured on the helmet of the statue of Athena in the Parthenon at Athens; and sphinxes carrying off children were sculptured on the front feet of the throne of Zeus at Olympia.
It is important to observe that in resting the fame of Pheidias upon the sculptures of the Parthenon we proceed with little evidence.
It is therefore probable that most if not all of the sculptural decoration of the Parthenon was the work of pupils of Pheidias, such as Alcamenes and Agoracritus, rather than his own.
To him are ascribed also the original Parthenon on the Acropolis, afterwards burned by the Persians, and replaced by the Parthenon of Pericles.
The visit of the French physician Jacques Spon and the Englishman, Sir George Wheler or Wheeler (1650-1723), fortunately took place before the catastrophe of the Parthenon in 1687; Spon's Voyage d'Italie, de Dalmatie, de Grece et du Levant, which contained the first scientific description of the ruins of Athens, appeared in 1678; Wheler's Journey into Greece, in 1682.
All belong to the " archaic " epoch; only a few remains of the greater age were found, including some fragments of sculptures from the Parthenon and Erechtheum.
Frazer maintains the hitherto current theory that the earlier temple of Athena and Erechtheus was on the site of the Erechtheum; that the Erechtheum inherited the name apXa ios veclis from its predecessor, and that the " opisthodomos " in which the treasures were kept was the west chamber of the Parthenon; Furtwangler and Milchh6fer hold the strange view that the " opisthodomos " was a separate building at the east end of the Acropolis, while Penrose thinks the building discovered by Dorpfeld was possibly the Cecropeum.
From the inner exit of the Propylaea a passage led towards the east along the north side of the Parthenon; almost directly facing the entrance was the colossal bronze statue of Athena (afterwards called Athena Promachos) by Pheidias, probably set up by Cimon in commemoration of the Persian defeat.
Beyond the Parthenon, a little to the north-east, was the great altar of Athena, and near it the statue and altar of Zeus Polieus.
As in the Parthenon, there is a sculptured zophoros above the exterior of the cella walls; this, however, extends over the east and west fronts only and the east ends of the sides; the eastern zophoros represents a battle-scene with seated deities on either hand, the western a centauromachia.
The Acropolis Museum (opened 1878) possesses a singularly interesting collection of sculptures belonging to the " archaic " period of Greek art, all found on the Acropolis; here, too, are some fragments of the pedimental statues of the Parthenon and several reliefs from its frieze, as well as the slabs from the balustrade of the temple of Nike.
The Parthenon, the Erechtheum, the " Theseum " and other temples were converted into Christian churches and were thus preserved throughout the middle ages.
In 869 the see of Athens became an archbishopric. In 995 Attica was ravaged by the Bulgarians under their tsar Samuel, but Athens escaped; after the defeat of Samuel at Belasitza (1014) the emperor Basil II., who blinded 15,000 Bulgarian prisoners, came to Athens and celebrated his triumph by a thanksgiving service in the Parthenon (1018).
Under Francesco Morosini the Venetians again attacked Athens in September 1687; a shot fired during the bombardment of the Acropolis caused a powder magazine in the Parthenon to explode, and the building was rent asunder.
The central sculptures of the western pediment of the Parthenon, which Morosini intended to take to Venice, were unskilfully detached by his workmen, and falling to the ground were broken to pieces.
For the Parthenon, A.
Michaelis, Der Parthenon (texts and plates, Leipzig, 1871); L.
The reliefs of the frieze of the cella of the Parthenon enable us to form an idea of the procession.
The more imposing of the two is the Walhalla, a costly reproduction of the Parthenon, erected as a Teutonic temple of fame on a hill rising from the Danube at Donaustauf, 6 m.
The subject of the frieze of the Parthenon is an idealized treatment of this great procession.
Michaelis, Der Parthenon (1871), with full bibliography; P. Stengel, Die griechischen Kultusaltertilmer (1898); L.
The colossal statues of ivory and gold by Pheidias were the most notable examples of this use of gold, especially his statue of Athena in the Parthenon, and the one of Zeus at Olympia.
These statues bear the same relation to the sculptor Polyclitus which the Parthenon marbles hold to Pheidias; and the excavations have thus yielded most important material for the illustration of the Argive art of Polyclitus in the 5th century B.C.
In form they resemble those of the Parthenon and Theseum, but they have only sixteen flutings.
Occupation of a sufficient hinterland on the terra firma, nonsufferance of the rivalry of Genoa, and, finally, maintenance of trade-supremacy in the eastern Mediterranean through a series of alternating wars and treaties with Turkey, the lasting monument of which was the destruction of the Parthenon in 1685 by a Venetian bomb.
On his pages, close beside the Parthenon, the Sphinx, St Paul's, Etna and Vesuvius, you will find the White Mountains, Monadnock, Agiocochook, Katandin, the pickerelweed in bloom, the wild geese honking through the sky, the chick-a-dee braving the snow, Wall Street and State Street, cotton-mills, railroads and Quincy granite.
But he reconciled the dignity with the loyalty of Athens by carrying a decree that Harpalus should be arrested, and that his treasure should be deposited in the Parthenon, to be held in trust for Alexander.
Which still stand the reproduced Parthenon of Athens, the History Building, which in general outline is a reproduction of the Erectheum and contains a museum and an art gallery, and a monument to the memory of James Robertson (1742-1814), the founder of the city.
The Parthenon was transformed into a mosque; the existing minaret at its south-western corner was built after 1466.
Magne, Le Parthenon (Paris, 1895); J.
On the other hand, inscriptions prove that the marble blocks intended for the pedimental statues of the Parthenon were not brought to Athens until 434 B.C., which was probably after the death of Pheidias.
As regards the decorative sculptures of the Parthenon, which the Greeks rated far below their colossus in ivory and gold, see the article Parthenon.