But the ovaries of worker ants are in some cases sufficiently developed for the production of eggs, which may give rise parthenogenetically to male, queen or worker offspring.
Petrunkevich (1901-1903), the second polar nucleus uniting with one daughter-nucleus of the first polar body gives rise to the germ-cells of the parthenogenetically-produced male.
The fertility of the parthenogenetically produced insects would also diminish after a certain number of generations had been produced.
They lay their parthenogenetically produced eggs in the angles of the veins of the leaves, in the buds, or, if the season is already far advanced, in the bark.
Within this gall the stock-mother lives and surrounds herself with numerous parthenogenetically produced eggs - sometimes as many as two hundred in a single gall; these eggs give birth after six or eight days to a numerous progeny (gallicola), some of which form new galls and multiply in the leaves, whilst others descend to the roots and become the root-dwelling forms already described.
In certain cases single cells develop parthenogenetically, without fusion, each cell producing, however, only four spores.
The theory may be put forward that the ordinary forms have been derived from sexual forms like Schizosaccharomyces and Zygosaccharomyces by a loss of sexuality, the sporangium being formed parthenogenetically without any nuclear fusion.
From these females are born parthenogenetically, that is to say without the intervention of males, and by a process that has been compared to internal budding, large numbers of young resembling their parents in every particular except size, which themselves reproduce their kind in the same way.
Some of the apterous young that are hatched from these form fresh galls and continue to multiply in the leaves, others descend to the root of the plant, becoming what are known as root-forms. These, like the parent form of spring, reproduce parthenogenetically, giving rise to generation after generation of egg-laying individuals.