The offspring of the virgin females are in most of these instances females; but among the bees and wasps parthenogenesis occurs normally and always results in the development of males, the " queen " insect laying either a fertilized or unfertilized egg at will.
Parthenogenesis is of normal occurrence in the life-cycle of many Hymenoptera.
(From Cheshire's Bees and Bee-keeping, Scientific and Practical.) Huber's hive was defective in many respects; the parting of each frame, thus letting loose the whole colony, caused much trouble at times, but it remained the only movable-comb hive till 1838, when Dr Dzierzon - whose theory of parthenogenesis has made his name famous - devised a box-hive with a loose top-bar on which the bees built their combs and a movable side or door, by means of which the frames could be lifted out for inspection.
Parthenogenesis and Paedogenesis.
He supports parthenogenesis in some plants.
Parthenogenesis is frequent.
They are the most resistant to unfavourable conditions of environment, and are able, by a process of parthenogenesis, to give rise to ordinary, indifferent forms again, which can repopulate the gnat.
Parthenogenesis, or the development of an embryo from an egg-cell without the latter having been fertilized has been described in species of Thalictrum, Antennaria and Alchemilla.
6.) workers, and unfertilized eggs in "drone-cells," virgin reproduction or parthenogenesis being therefore a normal factor in the life of these insects.
For recent controversy on parthenogenesis in the hive bee, see J.
Parthenogenesis is prevalent in the Branchiopoda and Ostracoda, often in more or less definite seasonal alternation with sexual reproduction.
The large amount of salt in the water makes both fauna and flora of the lake scanty; there are a few algae, the larvae of an Ephydra and of a Tipula fly, specimens of what seems to be Corixa decolor, and in great quantities, so as to tint the surface of the water, the brine shrimp, Artemia salina (or gracilis or fertilis), notable biologically for the rarity of males, for the high degree of parthenogenesis and for apparent interchangeableness with the Branchipus.