The kings and parliaments who serve, as its vehicles."
Two burgesses were summoned to the parliaments of 1300, 1307 and 1309, but no further returns were made until 1625.
Taking the states as a whole, agrarian legislation has been the most important subject that has engrossed the attention of their parliaments, and every state has been more or less engaged in tinkering with its land laws.
In accordance with the understanding arrived at, the various Australasian parliaments appointed delegates to attend a national convention to be held in Sydney, and on the 2nd March 1891 the convention held its first meeting.
The convention met in Adelaide on the 22nd of March 1897, and, after drafting a bill for the consideration of the various parliaments, adjourned until the 2nd of September.
The law was ably and justly administered, and Irish trade was admitted to the same privileges as English, enjoying the same rights in foreign and colonial trade; and no attempt was made to subordinate the interests of the former to the latter, which was the policy adopted both before and after Cromwell's time, while the union of Irish and English interests was further recognized by the Irish representation at Westminster in the parliaments of 1654, 1656 and 16J9.
Parliaments are quinquennial, but the king may dissolve the Chamber of Deputies at any time, being bound, however, to convoke a new chamber within four months.
Questions of tithes (or "teinds ") and ministers' stipends were referred to commissioners by acts of the Scots parliaments beginning in 1607.
As " Scottish commissioner to the Westminster Assembly, he was in England from August 1643 till August 1646; his principal work was the drafting of the directory for public worship. Early in 1645 Henderson was sent to Uxbridge to aid the commissioners of the two parliaments in negotiating with the king; but nothing came of the conference.
1640-1649), English royalist, son of Sir Henry Capel of Raines Hall, Essex, and of Theodosia, daughter of Sir Edward Montagu of Broughton, Northamptonshire, was elected a member of the Short and Long Parliaments in 1640 for Hertfordshire.
Occasionally summoned to English parliaments, he spent most of his forty years of activity in Ireland, where he was the greatest noble of his day, usually fighting the natives or his Anglo-Norman rivals.
York was frequently visited by the kings of England on the way to Scotland, and several important parliaments were held there, the first being that of 1175, when Malcolm, king of Scotland, did homage to Henry II.
To these parish parliaments delegates are sent from every station.
Parliaments occasionally assembled on the Moot Hill, where the first national council of which we possess records was held (906).
Of the thirteen parliaments summoned by that sovereign, only one, the last, was held at Edinburgh, but his assassination in the Blackfriars' monastery at Perth led to the abrupt transfer of the court and capital from the Tay to the Forth.
Of fourteen parliaments summoned during this reign, only one was held at Perth, five met at Stirling and the rest at Edinburgh; and, notwithstanding the favour shown for Stirling as a royal residence in the following reign, every one of the parliaments of James III.
He maintained the connexion of church and state, and opposed triennial parliaments and the ballot.
He returned to Scotland in 1639, and established communications with the Covenanters and the Opposition in England, and as member for Banbury in both 'the Short and Long Parliaments he took a prominent part in the attacks upon the church.
In the same year he began a long account of ancient parliaments, intended to reflect on the one in existence, and in June 1650 he was imprisoned in Dunster Castle, afterwards at Taunton, and in June 1651 at Pendennis Castle.
The last of the Unreformed parliaments was dissolved on the 3rd of December 1832.
His eldest son Robert represented the borough of Nottingham in six parliaments and died in 1714.
Franklin contended that the governor, as a mere agent of the king, could have nothing to do with the assembly's appointment of its agent to the king; that " the King, and not the King, Lords, and Commons collectively, is their sovereign; and that the King, with their respective Parliaments, is their only legislator."
He was elected a representative peer for Scotland in 1737 but not in the following parliaments, and appears not to have spoken in debate.
Under the constitution of united Sweden and Norway, in the event of the necessity of electing a Regent and the disagreement of the parliaments of the two countries, Karlstad was indicated as the meeting-place of a delegacy for the purpose.
Sir George Grey, entering colonial politics as a Radical leader, had appealed eloquently to the work-people as well as to the Radical "intellectuals," and though unable to retain office for very long he had compelled his opponents to pass manhood suffrage and a triennial parliaments act.
These decisions were the result of an agreement to bring before the parliaments of the various colonies a resolution advocating the closer union of the South African states and the appointment of delegates to a national convention to frame a draft constitution.
Upon the dissolution of the last of Charles's parliaments the king issued a justificatory declaration.
In each point the English constitution, which he ardently admires, is, he says, suffering: the prerogatives of the crown are disproportionately great; the peerage has been degraded by new creations; and parliaments are slighted.
Was a useful protest against the idea that the king was a mere:sanguinary profligate, but his representation of him as the self-denying minister of his people's will is erroneous, and is founded on the false theory that the preambles of the acts of Henry's parliaments represented the opinions of the educated laymen of England.
After 1876, the Provincial parliaments (diputaciones) were elected like the other provincial councils of Spain, deprived of many privileges and subjected to the ordinary interference of the civil governors.
Synods were occasionally held in this church, and parliaments also, before the Commons' Hall was destroyed in 1566 by an accidental explosion of gunpowder.
The right of coining money was bestowed on the town, and parliaments were several times held within its walls.
It is composed of groups of the different parliaments of the world, who meet periodically to " bring about the acceptance in their respective countries, by votes in parliament and by means of arbitration treaties, of the principle that differences between nations should be submitted to arbitration and to consider other questions of international importance."
In the 16th century the town was the meeting-place of several parliaments, and down to 1805 it was the seat of the provincial assembly of Funen.
In 1437, many of the Scottish parliaments were held in Perth.
Of the first and second parliaments of Charles I.
The borough returned two members to the parliament of 1295 and to other parliaments, until by the Representation Act 1867 it lost one representative, and by the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 separate representation.
No sooner was this effected than the project of a legislative union between the British and Irish parliaments, which had been from time to time discussed since the beginning of the 18th century, was taken up in earnest by Pitt's government.
He hated Dissenters, and stock-jobbers, the excise and the army, septennial parliaments, and Continental connexions.
The patriotism and Pan-Germanism of the gymnastic societies (Turuvereine) and students associations (Burschenschaften) expressed themselves with more noise than discretion; in the South-German parliaments the platitudes and catchwords of the Revolution were echoed.
On the 1st of September it passed, with some slight modifications, the Austrian proposals for the reconstruction of the Bund under a supreme Directory, an assembly of delegates from the variotis parliaments, a federal court of appeal and periodical conferences of sovereigns.
A party called the National Liberals was formed, whose main object was to secure the union of South with North Germany, and it at once entered into peculiar relations with Bismarck, who, in spite of his native contempt for parliaments and parliamentary government, was quite prepared to make use of any instruments he found ready to his hand.
None the less, from this time the acts of the state governments and parliaments have ceased to have more than a local importance; the history of the nation is centred in Berlin, in the Bundesrat or federal council, in which the interests of the individual states are represented; in the Reichstag, iii which the feelings and wishes of the nation are expressed; and above all, in the Prussian government and imperial executive.
In many of the state parliaments resolutions were carried protesting against the system of imperial railways, and from that time the preservation of the local railway management has been the chief object towards which, in Saxony, Bavaria and Wurttemberg, local feeling has been directed.
The result of the legal reform and other laws has been greatly to diminish the duties of the state governments, for every new imperial law permanently deprives the local parliaments of part of their authority.
Laws had been passed prolonging the period of both the Prussian and Imperial parliaments from three to five years; when they were laid before the emperor for his signature he said that he must consider them.
The attempts to combine personal government with representative institutions was one of much interest; it was more successful than might have been anticipated, owing to the disorganization of political parties and the absence of great political leaders; in Germany, as elsewhere, the parliaments had not succeeded in maintaining public interest, and it is worth noting that even the attendance of members was very irregular.
In the state parliaments of Bavaria, Baden and Hesse their influence was very great.
The yearly contingent of recruits for the army is fixed by the military bills voted by the Austrian and Hungarian parliaments, and is generally determined on the basis of the population, according to the last census returns.
They were very careful that these Delegations should not overshadow the parliaments by which they were appointed.
The settlement with Hungary consisted then of three parts: - (1) the political settlement, which was to be permanent and has since remained part of the fundamental constitution of the monarchy; (2) the periodical financial settlement, determining the partition of the common expenses as arranged by the Quota-Deputations and ratified by the parliaments; (3) the Customs Union and the agreement as to currency - a voluntary and terminable arrangement made between the two governments and parliaments.
In the summer of 1867, however (the Austrian Reichsrath having met), the two parliaments each elected a deputation of fifteen members to arrange the financial settlement.
After the financial question had been thus settled, the whole of these arrangements were then, on the 21st and the 24th of December 1867, enacted by the two parliaments, and the system of dualism was established.
In 1892 laws introducing a completely new coinage were carried in both parliaments, in accordance with agreements made by the ministers.
The whole series of acts had to be carried in two parliaments, each open to the influence of national jealousy and race hatred in its most extreme form, so that the negotiations have been conducted under serious difficulties, and the periodical settlement has always been a time of great anxiety.
The first settlement occupied two full years, from 1876, when the negotiations began, to June 1878, when at last all the bills were carried successfully through the two parliaments; and it was necessary to prolong the previous arrangements (which expired at the end of 1877) till the middle of 1878.
Then followed the debates in the two parliaments; there was a ministerial crisis in Austria, because the House refused to accept the tax on coffee and petroleum which was recommended by the ministers; and finally a great council of all the ministers, with the emperor presiding, determined the compromise that was at last accepted.
In the autumn of 1902 the Austrian and the Hungarian governments, at the instance of the crown and in agreement with the joint minister for war and the Austrian and Hungarian ministers for national defence, laid before their respective parliaments bills providing for an increase of 21,000 men in the annual contingents of recruits.
Sicily had parliaments, and some constitutional principles were well understood.
By the laws of Frederick parliaments were to be regularly held, and without their consent the king could not make war, peace or alliance.
Scotland was to be forgiven the ransom, receive the Stone of Scone and retain its independent title as a kingdom: her parliaments were to be held within her own borders; her governors and magistrates were to be Scots, freedom of trade was guaranteed, and the earl of Douglas was to be restored to his English estates, or to an equivalent.
For Scottish constitutional history, what there is of it, Sanford Terry's Scottish Parliaments may be recommended.
He drew up the bill for making parliaments indissoluble except by their own consent, and supported the Grand Remonstrance and the action taken in the Commons against the illegal canons; on the militia question, however, he advocated a joint control by king and parliament.
With the present complex forms of political and social life in Europe can any event that is not prescribed, decreed, or ordered by monarchs, ministers, parliaments, or newspapers be imagined?