When boiled with calcium chloride and ammonia, salicylic acid gives a precipitate of insoluble basic calcium salicylate, C 6 H 4 ‹ 0 2 i Ca, a reaction which serves to distinguish it from the isomeric metaand para-hydroxybenzoic acids.
Amongst arboreous families Leguminosae and Euphorbiaceae are prominent; Hevea belonging to the latter is widely distributed in various species in the Amazon basin, and yields Para and other kinds of rubber.
The aminophenols also find application as developers in photography, the more important of these developers being amidol, the hydrochloride of diaminophenol, ortol, the hydrochloride of para-methylaminophenol, C6H4.
Phenol dissolves readily in concentrated sulphuric acid, a mixture of phenol-orthoand -para-sulphonic acids being formed.
GOYAZ, an inland state of Brazil, bounded by Matto Grosso and Para, on the W., Maranhao, Bahia and Minas Geraes on the E., and Minas Geraes and Matto Grosso on the S.
The inner lobe (lacinia) of the first maxilla terminates in an articulated hook, while in the second maxillae (labium) both inner and outer lobes ("ligula" and "para-glossae") are much Gyrinus sulcatus reduced.
- Lixus para- thus anchorago.
The only published collections of documents relating to the state are Buckingham Smith's Collection de varios documentos para la historic de la Florida y tierras adyacentes (London, 1857), and Benjamin F.
1.2 or 1.6, named ortho- (o), 1.3 or 1.5, named meta- (m), and 1.4, named para- compounds (p).
OH COOH, may be prepared; and the two other known oxybenzoic acids (ortho- and para-) may be converted into benzoic acid.
By further substitution of orthoand para-diderivatives, in general the same tri-derivative [1.2.4] is formed (Ann., 1878, 192, p. 219); meta - compounds yield [1.3.41 and [1.2.
De voces Cubanas (Havana, 1836, 4th ed., 1875; all editions with many errors); Antonio Bachiller y Morales, Apuntes Para la historia de las letras y de la instruction publica de Cuba (3 tom., Havana, 1859-1861); J.
Apuntes Para la historia politica (2 tom., Madrid, 1872-1873); also J.
It is usually prepared by the so-called "Reimer" reaction (Ber., 1876, 9,p. 1268), in which chloroform acts on phenol in the presence of a caustic alkali, C 6 H 5 OH+CHC1 3 +4KHO = 3KCI+3H20+KOï¿½C6H4ï¿½CHO, some para-oxybenaldehyde being formed at the same time.
By Amazonas and Para., E.
The mono-amino derivatives or eurhodines are obtained when the arylmonamines are condensed with orthoamino zo compounds; by condensing quinone dichlorimide or para-nitrosodimethyl aniline with monamines containing a free para position, or by oxidizing ortho-hydroxydiaminodiphenylamines (R.
It is obtained by the oxidation of orthophenylene diamine with ferric chloride; when a mixture of para-aminodimethylaniline and meta-toluylenediamine is oxidized in the cold, toluylene blue, an indamine, being formed as an intermediate product and passing into the red when boiled; and also by the oxidation of dimethylparaphenylene diamine with metatoluylene diamine.
The remarkable medusa Mnestra parasites is ecto-para- '"' rp m sitic throughout life sr..
By the action of dilute nitric acid; orthoand para-nitrophenols are obtained, the ortho-compound being separated from the para-compound by distillation in a current of steam.
Ortho-nitrophenol, C6H4.OH N02(1-2), crystallizes in yellow needles which melt at 45° C. and boil at 214°C. Para-nitrophenol, C6H4.
By the reduction of nitro-phenols, the corresponding aminophenols are obtained, and of these, the metaand para-derivatives are the most important.
Thus potassium ortho-oxybenzoate is converted into the salt of para-oxybenzoic acid at 220 0; the three bromphenols, and also the brombenzenesulphonic acids, yield m-dioxybenzene or resorcin when fused with potash.
Ladenburg (Ann., 1875, 179, p. 163) to be symmetrical trimethyl benzene; terephthalic acid, the remaining isomer, must therefore be the para-compound.
The diaminobenzene resulting from two of these acids is the ortho-compound; from three, the meta-; and from one the para-; this is explained by the following scheme: CH NH, NH, NH., IAO NH, N / NH HooCCNH, Cooh Nh, W.
A scheme such as the preceding one shows that the first dibrombenzene must be the ortho-compound, the second the meta-, and the third the para-derivative.
That 1.2 and 1.6 should be ortho-positions, 1.3 and 1.5 meta-, and 1.4 para-, and following out the transformation on the Ladenburg formula, then an ortho-dioxyterephthalic acid (IV) should result, a fact denied by experience, and inexplicable unless we assume a wandering of atoms. Kekule's formula (III), on the other hand, is in full agreement (Baeyer).
By reducing terephthalic acid with sodium amalgam, care being taken to neutralize the caustic soda simultaneously formed by passing in carbon dioxide, A" dihydroterephthalic acid is obtained; this results from the splitting of a Para-linkage.
From these results Baeyer concluded that Claus' formula with three para-linkings cannot possibly be correct, for the Q2.5 dihydroterephthalic acid undoubtedly has two ethylene linkages, since it readily takes up two or four atoms of bromine, and is oxidized in warm aqueous solution by alkaline potassium permanganate.
From the pyrone ring the following series of compounds are derived (for brevity, the hydrogen atoms are not printed): Penthiophene gives, by a similar introduction of nitrogen atoms, penthiazoline, corresponding to meta-oxazine, and para-thiazine, CH 2 CH 2o CH CO „ .„0 C ?
H C corresponding to paroxazine (para-oxazine).
Pyridine gives origin to: pyridazine or ortho-diazine, pyrimidine or metadiazine, pyrazine or para-diazine, osotriazine, unsymmetrical triazine, symmetrical triazine, osotetrazone and tetrazine.
Benzo-ortho-diazines exist in two structural forms, cinnolin and phthalazine; benzo-meta-diazines are known as quinazolines; benzo-para-diazines are termed quinoxalines; the dibenzo-compounds are named phenazines, this last group including many valuable dyestuffs - indulines, safranines, &c. In addition to the types of compounds enumerated above we may also notice purin, tropine and the terpenes.
It follows on this theory that all coloured substances contain either of the groupings or the former being a para-quinonoid, the latter an ortho-quinonoid.
Hydrocarbons of similar structure have been prepared by Thiele, for example, the orange-yellow tetraphenyl-para-xylylene, which is obtained by boiling the bromide C6H4[CBr(C6H5)2]2 with benzene and molecular silver.
It is to be noted in the Kolbe method of synthesis that potassium phenolate may be used in place of the sodium salt, provided that the temperature be kept low (about 150° C.), for at the higher temperature (220° C.) the isomeric para-oxybenzoic acid is produced.
For these reasons, during the last two or three months of the financial year, the vilayets have not a para to remit to the central administration, and it has been considered imperatively necessary to draw on the revenues of the following year.
In his 1910 budget speech the minister of finance, Javid Bey, demanded authority to create a new aluminium coinage of 5, 10, 20 and 40 para pieces, of which he would issue, in the course of three years, a nominal amount of £T1,000,000 to those provinces in which there was a great scarcity of small coins.
If an alkali is added, however, a highly dissociated salt of para-nitrophenol is formed, and the yellow colour is at once evident.
Ule rubber is generally inferior in strength to Para and commands a lower price.
The Castilloa tree appears to be suitable for cultivation only in districts where the Para rubber would grow equally well.
RUBBERS Para Ceara Castilloa Ficus Landolphia Para Latex Rubber Rubber Rubber Elastica Kirkii (Ceylon).
The loss on washing ranges from 10-15% with " fine Para " to 40% with other " wild " rubbers.
Vilbouchevitch); Herbert Wright, Hevea brasiliensis or Para Rubber (Colombo, 1908); Rubber in the East: the official account of the Ceylon Rubber Exhibition, 1906, edited by J.
It is also obtained by heating para-chlorphenoldisulphonic acid with potassium hydroxide.
When cyanogen is prepared by heating mercuric cyanide, a residue known as para-cyanogen, (CN)x, is left; this is to be regarded as a polymer of cyanogen.
La Condamine ascertained the nature of the tree, now known as Hevea brasiliensis, from which the Para rubber of S.
The enormous increase in the commercial demand for rubber and the probability of the continuance of this increase in view of the great variety of purposes to which the material can be applied, has led to great activity in rubber planting in other parts of the world, especially in Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago, where the Para rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) has been successfully introduced, and numerous plantations; many of which have not been in existence for more than ten or fifteen years, are now contributing to the world's supply.
" Plantation " Para rubber from Ceylon and the Malay States has brought prices equal to and often exceeding those of fine Para rubber from Brazil.
Para rubber from Brazil generally contains about 15% of water, whilst " plantation " Para is usually nearly dry and contains 1% of water or less.
It would appear, however, that the finest " wild " Para rubber as a rule possesses greater tensile strength than the " plantation " rubber.
That the superiority of the " wild " Para is principally due to the greater age of the forest trees from which the rubber is obtained, many of which are from thirty to fifty years old.
I i.--Para Rubber Plantation, Ceylon.
- Para Rubber Trees, Tapped - Ceylon.
The market price of commercial rubber is determined by the current price of " fine Para " from S.
Towards the latter part of 1904 the price of fine Para reached a high level and then considerably declined, reaching in 1907-8 a lower figure than had been recorded since 1900.
" Para " rubber, which takes the first position in the market, is derived from species of Hevea, principally Hevea brasiliensis, of which there are enormous forests in the valleys of the Amazon and its tributaries, and also in Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela and Guiana.
Para Rubber is so named from the Para province of Brazil, from the principal town of which, also known as Para, most of the rubber is shipped.
Thus para-nitrophenol has colourless molecules, but an intensely yellow negative ion.