PAPHOS, an ancient city and sanctuary on the west coast of Cyprus.
New Paphos (Papho or Baffo), which had already superseded Old Paphos in Roman times, lies to m.
Paphos was believed to have been founded either by the Arcadian Agapenor, returning from the Trojan War (c. 1180 B.C.), or by his reputed contemporary Cinyras, whose clan retained royal privileges down to the Ptolemaic conquest of Cyprus in 295 B.C., and held the Paphian priesthood till the Roman occupation in 58 B.C. The town certainly dates back to the close of the Mycenaean Bronze age, and had a king Eteandros among the allies of Assur-bani-pal of Assyria in 668 B.C.'
In Hellenic times the kingdom of Paphos was only second to Salamis in extent and influence, and bordered on those of Soli and Curium.
Paphos owes its ancient fame to the cult of the "Paphian goddess" llacNaFavavaa, or 7) IIacaia, in inscriptions, or simply n 8ea), a nature-worship of the same type as the cults of Phoenician Astarte, maintained by a college of orgiastic ministers, practising sensual excess and self-mutilation.'
The Greeks identified both this and a similar cult at Ascalon with their own worship of Aphrodite, 3 and localized at Paphos the legend of her birth from the sea foam, which is in fact accumulated here, on certain winds, in masses more than a foot deep. 4 Her grave also was 1 E.
After the foundation of New Paphos and the extinction of the Cinyrad and Ptolemaic dynasties, the importance of the Old Town declined rapidly.
New Paphos became the administrative capital of the whole island in Ptolemaic and Roman days, as well as the head of one of the four Roman districts; it was also a flourishing commercial city in the time of Strabo, and famous for its oil, and for "diamonds" of medicinal power.
Pilgrims visiting Paphos, the original home and temple of Astarte, could of course be in no doubt about which of the heavenly powers inhabited the cone of stone in which she was there held to be immanent; nor was any Semite ever ignorant as to which Baal he stood before.
The journey extended from Salamis " throughout the whole island " of Cyprus as far as Paphos, and on the mainland from Pamphylia to Pisidian Antioch, Iconium, Lystra and Derbe, at each of which places indications are given of a prolonged visit (xiii.
She represented the principle of fertility and generation; references to her cult at Gebal, Sidon, Ashkelon, in Cyprus at Kition and Paphos, in Sicily at Eryx, in Gaulus, at Carthage, are frequent in the inscriptions and elsewhere.
Pylagoras of Chytroi, Eteandros of Paphos, Onasagoras of Ledroi.
The Greek colonists traced their descent, at Curium, from Argos; at Lapathus, from Laconia; at Paphos, from Arcadia; at Salamis, from the Attic island of that name; and at Soli, also from Attica.
The settlements at Paphos and Salamis, and probably at Curium, were believed to date from the period of the Trojan War, i.e.
Sargon's inscription at Citium is cuneiform.4 The culture and art of Cyprus in this Graeco-Phoenician period are well represented by remains from Citium, Idalium, Tamassus, Amathus and Curium; the earlier phases are best represented round Lapathus, Soli, Paphos and Citium; the later Hellenization, at Amathus and Marion-Arsinoe.
13 The principal Greek cities were now Salamis, Curium, Paphos, Marion, Soli, Kyrenia and Khytri.
Usually it was governed by a viceroy of the royal line, but it gained a brief independence under Ptolemy Lathyrus (107-89 B.C.), and under a brother of Ptolemy Auletes in 58 B.C. The great sanctuaries of Paphos and Idalium, and the public buildings of Salamis, which were wholly remodelled in this period, have produced but few works of art; the sculpture from local shrines at Voni and Vitsada, and the frescoed tombstones from Amathus, only show how incapable the Cypriotes still were of utilizing Hellenistic models; a rare and beautiful class of terra-cottas like those of Myrina may be of Cypriote fabric, but their style is wholly of the Aegean.
Porcius Cato to annex the island, nominally because its king had connived at piracy, really because its revenues and the treasures of Paphos were coveted to finance a corn law of P. Clodius.
For the culture of the Roman period there is abundant evidence from Salamis and Paphos, and from tombs everywhere, for the glass vessels which almost wholly supersede pottery are much sought for their (quite accidental) iridescence; not much else is found that is either characteristic or noteworthy; and little attention has been paid to the sequence of style.
20 The successes of 1885-1886 led to the foundation of the Cyprus Exploration Fund, on behalf of which (1) in 1888 the sanctuary of Aphrodite at Paphos (Kouklia) was excavated by Messrs E.
(coins of Paphos), pl.
Its kingdom was bounded by the territories of Marion, Paphos, Tamassus and Lapathus.
A Latin hierarchy was set up in 1196 (an archbishop at Nicosia with suffragans at Limasol, Paphos and Famagusta), and the Greek bishops were made to minister to their flocks in subjection to it.
The suppressed sees have never been restored, but the four which survive (now known as Nicosia, Paphos, Kition and Kyrenia) are of metropolitan rank, so that the archbishop, whose headquarters, first at Salamis, then at Famagusta, are now at Nicosia, is a primate amongst metropolitans.