For the relations of Russia with the papacy, see T.
Its bishop Cadalus (1046-1071) was elected to the papacy by the Lombard and German bishops in 1061, and marched on Rome, but was driven back by the partisans of Alexander III.
During his short reign Calixtus strengthened the authority of the papacy in southern Italy by military expeditions, and restored several buildings within the city of Rome.
That of the prince as representing within the limits of his dominions the monarchy of God over all things, culminated in the 17th century in the doctrine of the divine right of kings, and was defined in the famous dictum of Louis XIV.: L'etat c'est moil The conception of monarchy was derived through Christianity from the theocracies of the East; it was the underlying principle of the medieval empire and also of the medieval papacy, the rule of the popes during the period of its greatest development being sometimes called "the papal.
The recent scandals of the papacy induced Otto to deprive the Romans of their right to elect popes.
The struggle between them has been represented as one of a patriotic archbishop resisting the encroachments of the papacy on the Church of England.
It is by no means certain that he made the remark often attributed to him, "Let us enjoy the papacy since God has given it to us," but there is little doubt that he was by nature devoid of moral earnestness or deep religious feeling.
For the history of the definition see Vatican Council; also Papacy, Gallicanism, Febronianism, Old Catholics, &c.
In his struggle with the anti-pope, Honorius II.; and having served the papacy as legate to France and to Florence, he was allowed to resign his bishopric in 1067.
That principle is Spiritual in- equally opposed to Erastianism and to Papacy, to the civil power dominating the Church, and to the ecclesiastical power dominating the state.
In 1815 it returned to the papacy, but was united to Italy in 1860.
Elevated to the papacy, on the 16th of May 1605, his extreme conception of papal prerogative,.
The Franko-Papal alliance, which conferred a crown on Pippin and sovereign rights upon the see of Rome, held within itself that ideal of mutually Charles supporting papacy and empire which exercised so the iireat powerful an influence in medieval history.
Early in the 10th century the papacy fell into the hands of a noble family, known eventually as the counts of Tusculum, who almost succeeded in rendering the office hereditary, and in uniting the civil and ecclesiastical functions of the city under a single member of their house.
But it neither raised the prestige of the papacy, nor could it satisfy the Italians, who rightly regarded the Roman see as theirs.
The condition of the church seemed desperate, unless it could be purged of crying scandals of the subjection of the papacy to the great Roman nobles, of its subordination to the German emperor and of its internal demoralization.
The greatest of the popes thus breathed his last; but the new spirit he had communicated to the papacy was not destined to expire with him.
In truth, the papacy and the empire had become irreconcilable.
To the papacy in 1159 added a powerful ally to the republican party.
A Frenchman, Clement V., was elected, and the seat of the papacy was transferred to Avignon.
Re-established the papacy upon a solid basis at Rome, the Italians approximated D~cr1mimore nearly to self-government than at any other nation of epoch of their history.
The great gainer by this settlement was the papacy, which held the most substantial Italian province, together with a prestige that raised it far above all rivalry.
The papacy, during this period, had to reconsider the question of the Jesuits, who made themselves universally odious, not only in Italy, but also in France and Spain.
He delivered a series of violent speeches against the papacy, and made open preparations for a raid, which were not interfered with by the government; but on.
Crispi, whose strong anti-clerical convictions did not prevent him from regarding the papacy as preeminently an Italian institution, was determined both to prove to the Catholic world the practical independence of the government of the Church and to retain for Rome so potent a centre of universal attraction as the presence of the future pope.
Danger of foreign interference in the relations between Italy and the papacy had never been so great since the Italian occupation of Rome, as when, in the summer of 1881,the disorders during the transfer of the remains of Pius IX.
Creightons History of the Papacy (London, 1897) and L.
He was born at Rome while his father was cardinal, and on the latter's elevation to the papacy (1492) he was created archbishop of Valencia, and a year later cardinal.
But he was certainly not a man of genius, as has long been imagined, and his success was chiefly due to the support of the papacy; once his father was dead his career was at an end, and he could no longer play a prominent part in Italian affairs.
He was liberal to the papacy, and was greatly influenced by the eminent clerics with whom he eagerly associated.
At .the Synod of Lhota (1167), they broke away entirely from the papacy, elected - ministers of their own, and had Michael Bradacius consecrated a bishop by Stephan, a bishop of the Waldenses.
The flagellants reappeared, and made the state of religious trouble in Germany, provoked by the struggle between the papacy and Louis of Bavaria, subserve their cause.
His successor in the papacy was Innocent V.
Here he helped to arrange the alliance between the Papacy, Venice and Spain against the Turks, an alliance which was responsible for the victory of Lepanto.
Was undone and the power of the papacy for a while restored.
After the failure of Contarini's attempt at reconciliation with the Protestants (1541) the papacy committed itself to the reaction advocated by Caraffa; the Inquisition and censorship were set up (1542, 1 543), and the extermination of heresy in Italy undertaken with vigour.
He had, moreover, received assurances from the emperor that he would further Wolsey's candidature for the papacy; and although he protested to Henry VIII.
The control of the papacy by Charles V., moreover, made it impossible for Wolsey to succeed in his efforts to obtain from Clement VII.
Gave the Order the rights of a prince of the Empire in its territories: Conrad of Masovia gave it the whole of Kulmerland in 1230; while in 1234 the Order established its independence of all authorities except the Papacy, by surrendering its territories to the Holy See and receiving them back again as a fief.
In 12 9 5 the Malatesta obtained possession of it, and kept it until 1444, when it was sold, with Pesaro, to Federico di Montefeltro of Urbino, and with the latter it passed to the papacy under Urban VIII.
Though he rejected the demand of the pope, who wished him to consent to the abolition of the compacts, he endeavoured to curry favour with the Roman see by punishing severely all the more advanced opponents of papacy in Bohemia.
Amidst the vituperations of the adherents of the papacy and the later Elizabethan eulogies, and in the absence of the records on which her sentence was pronounced, Anne Boleyn's guilt remains unproved.
When Henry broke with the papacy, Pope Paul III.
- The ghetto, which had prevailed more or less rigorously for a long period, was not formally prescribed by the papacy until the beginning of the 16th century.