Some uncertainty may be felt whether pantheism should rank as a theism.
Sianism, and from other suggestions of the past, developed that great system of determinist pantheism which was a scandal and a terror to his generation.
Spinoza, while consistently with his pantheism denying personal immortality, affirms that "the human mind cannot be absolutely destroyed with the body, but there remains of it something which is eternal " (Eth.
Lotze's metaphysics is thus distinguished from the theism of Newton and Leibnitz by its pantheism, and from the pantheism of Spinoza by its idealism.
Their vague pantheism landed them in moral confusion, and many of them were marked by fierce fanaticism.
But he does not follow his idea into the details of human duty, though he passes in review fatalism, mysticism, pantheism, scepticism, egotism, sentimentalism and rationalism.
And whether its teaching be theistic or pantheistic, pantheism or theism, whichever turns out victorious, must henceforth rank as a demonstrated certainty.
In physics - but in that region of speculation its positions are more perfunctory - it teaches pantheism on a quasi-materialistic basis.
The cosmological argument points to nature-pantheism, with the religions - especially those of India - which embody that attitude of mind.
This yields a characteristic type of pantheism, in the theory of the Unknowable which - rather paradoxically - is offered us.
The element of agnosticism tends rather towards pantheism, just as Indian pantheism long ago tended towards agnosticism.
It might be argued that beauty bears witness against materialism, and moral values against pantheism; although such an anomalous type as ethical pantheism has its representatives - J.
And idealism in some cases may interpret itself in favour of pantheism rather than of theism.
Pantheism does not favour free will or immortality, and may move indefinitely near to materialism.
Out of pantheism again pessimism develops.
Flint has dealt with the following antitheistic theories: atheism, materialism, positivism, secularism, pessimism, pantheism and (in a separate volume) agnosticism.
Theologically, the Thomistic system approximates to pantheism, while that of Scotus inclines distinctly to Pelagianism.
Brahmanic pantheism and Buddhistic nihilism alike teach the unreality of the seeming world, and preach mystical absorption as the highest goal; in both, the sense of the worth of human personality is lost.
Persian literature after that date, and especially Persian poetry, is full of an ardent natural pantheism, in which a mystic apprehension of the unity and divinity of all things heightens the delight in natural and in human beauty.
1207); but, while the movements just mentioned were reformatory without being heretical, this is very far from being the case with the mystical pantheism derived by Amalric from the writings of Erigena.
The thinker who sees man confronted by the infinite non-moral forces presumed by natural pantheism inevitably predominating over the finite powers of men may appear to the modern Christian theologian or to the evolutionist as a hopeless pessimist, and yet may himself have concluded that, though the future holds out no prospect save that of annihilation, man may yet by prudence and care enjoy a considerable measure of happiness.
Von Hartmann thus combines "pantheism" with "panlogism" in a manner adumbrated by Schelling in his "positive philosophy."
When the existence of God is denied (atheism), or His nature is declared unknowable (agnosticism), or He is identified with nature itself (pantheism), or He is so distinguished from the world that His free action is excluded from the course of nature (deism), miracle is necessarily denied.
The two opposing theories express at bottom, in the phraseology of their own time, the radical divergence of pantheism and individualism - the two extremes between which philosophy seems pendulum-wise to oscillate, and which may be said still to await their perfect reconciliation.
Abelard also perceived that Realism, by separating the universal substance from the forms which individualize it, makes the universal indifferent to these forms, and leads directly to the doctrine of the identity of all beings in one universal substance or matter - a pantheism which might take either an Averroistic or a Spinozistic form.
The mystical pantheism taught at Paris by Amalrich of Bena (d.
The Greek gods being the powers of nature personified, pantheism lay nearer to hand than monotheism.
Accordingly his assertion of the unity of God was at the same time a declaration of the unity of Being, and in virtue of this declaration he is entitled to rank as the founder of Eleaticism, inasmuch as the philosophy of Parmenides was his forerunner's pantheism divested of its theistic element.
In the first place, it may be doubted whether to a Greek of the 6th century pantheism was nearer than monotheism.
He owed something to Lucretius, something to the Stoic nature-pantheism, something to Anaxagoras, to Heraclitus, to the Pythagoreans, and to the Neoplatonists, who were partially known to him; above all, he was a profound student of Nicolas of Cusa, who was indeed a speculative Copernicus.
In the pantheism that thus takes the place of the old dualism there seems no place left for the individual.
Hence, while the accusation of pantheism is frequently brought against these thinkers, the term theosophical is never used in their regard.
His speculation turns, as has been said, upon the necessity of reconciling the existence and the might of evil with the existence of an all-embracing and allpowerful God, without falling into Manichaeanism on the one hand, or, on the other, into a naturalistic pantheism that denies the reality of the distinction between good and evil.
The materialism of Hobbes, the pantheism of Spinoza, the empiricism of Locke, the determinism of Leibnitz, Collins' necessitarianism, Dodwell's denial of the natural immortality of the soul, rationalistic attacks on Christianity, and the morality of the sensationalists - all these he opposed with a thorough conviction of the truth of the principles which he advocated.
Cusanus thus laid himself open to the charge of pantheism, which did not fail to be brought against him in his own day.
Yet these two schools of Sufis were never quite similar; on Sunnite soil Sufiism could not openly impugn orthodox views, while in Persia it was saturated with Shiite heresy and the pantheism of the extreme devotees of 'Ali.
1 Mystic absorption in the being of God, with an increasing tendency to pantheism and ascetic practices, are the main scope of all Sufiism, which is not necessarily confined to members of orders; indeed the secret practice of contemplation of the love of God and contempt of the world is sometimes viewed as specially meritorious.
At the same time pantheism almost necessarily presupposes a more concrete and less sophisticated conception of God and the universe.
Unlike the Hindu, Xenophanes inclined to pantheism as a protest against the anthropomorphic polytheism of the time, which seemed to him improperly to exalt one of the many modes of finite existence into the place of the Infinite.
Though the spirit and the language of Plotinus is closely allied to that of pantheism, the result of his thinking is not pantheism but mysticism.
Such a view is not pantheism but mysticism (q.v.), and should be compared with the theology of Oriental races.