Pans and pot are heated from separate fire-places.
I thought we agreed there was no point in using your mother's old dishes when we could just serve our food from the pans we cook it in?
She paused, shoving the straps of her dress up, and then gathered the remaining pans, stacking them beside the sink to wash after supper.
Every night, Tiyan warriors lit channels of fire around the field east of the walls using oil pans propped up by wooden stilts.
The salt-pans at Cagliari and of Carloforte are of considerable importance; they are let by the government to contractors, who have the sole right of manufacture, but are bound to sell the salt necessary for Sardinian consumption at 35 centesimi (3d.) per cwt.; the government does not exercise the salt monopoly in Sardinia any more than in Sicily, but in the latter island the right of manufacture is unrestricted.
The lagoons are believed to act as purifying pans in which the greater part of the salt in the water is precipitated.
Just as there were supposed to be several Pans and Fauns, so there were many Silenuses, whose father was called Papposilenus ("Daddy Silenus"), represented as completely covered with hair and more animal in appearance.
The process of soap-boiling is carried out in large iron boilers called " soap pans " or " coppers," some of which have capacity for a charge of 30 tons or more.
Formerly the pans were heated by open firing from below; but now the almost universal practice is to boil by steam injected from perforated pipes coiled within the pan, such injection favouring the uniform heating of the mass and causing an agitation favourable to the ultimate mixture and saponification of the materials.
In large pans a mechanical stirring apparatus is provided, which in some cases, as in Morfit's steam " twirl," is formed of the steam-heating tubes geared to rotate.
This liquid is concentrated in vacuum pans to a specific gravity of 40° to 44° B., a small quantity of sodium bisulphite solution being added to bleach it, to prevent fermentation, and to inhibit browning.
The plant consists of two tilting oval metal pans (capacity 7 tons), one cylindrical crystallizing pot (capacity 22 tons), with two discharging spouts and one steam inlet opening, two lead moulds (capacity 31 tons), and a steam crane.
The fire underneath the pot is again started, the crystals are liquefied, and one of the two pans, filled with melted lead, is tilted by means of the crane and its contents poured into the pot.
These rivers, in the wet season and in places, have plenty of water, generally dissipated in vleis, pans and vloers (marshy and lake land).
Small springs of fresh water are frequent and there are 'several shallow lakes or pans - flat bottomed depressions with no outlet.
The largest of these pans, Lake Chrissie, some 5 m.
The water in the pans is usually brackish.
Since the first advent of white colonists many springs and pans and small streams have dried up, this desiccation being attributed, not so much to decreased rainfall, as to the burning off of the grass every winter, so that the water, instead of soaking in, runs off the hard, baked'ground into the larger rivers.
Salt is obtainable from the many pans in the plateaus, notably in the Zout(salt)pansberg, and was formerly manufactured in considerable quantities.
In the 15th and 16th centuries the town was a leading seat of the salt industry ("salt to Dysart" was the equivalent of "coals to Newcastle"), but the salt-pans have been abandoned for a considerable period.
It is found that in reducing the juice of these two qualities to syrup, fit to pass to the vacuum pans for cooking to crystals, the total amount of evaporation from the degraded j uice is about half that required from the normal juice produced by double crushing.
The heat at which the syrup boils in the clarifiers, 220° F., has the property of separating a great deal of the gum still remaining in it, and thus cleansing the solution of sugar and water for crystallization in the vacuum pans; and if after skimming the syrup is run into separators or subsiders of any description, and allowed to settle down and cool before being drawn into the vacuum pan for crystallization, this cleansing process will be more thorough and the quality of the final product will be improved.
But this competition among inventors, whatever the incentive, has not been without benefit, because to-day, by means of very simple improvements in details, such as the addition of circulators and increased area of connexions, what may be taken to be the standard type of multiple-effect evaporator (that is to say, vertical vacuum pans fitted with vertical heating tubes, through which passes the liquor to be treated, and outside of which the steam or vapour circulates) evaporates nearly double the quantity of water per square foot of heating surface per hour which was evaporated by apparatus in use so recently as 1885 - and this without any increase in the steam pressure.
So also the principles laid down by Howard with respect to the vacuum pan hold good to-day: larger pans have been made and their heating surface has been increased, but it has been found by practice now, as it was found then, that an ordinary worm or coil 4 in.
Thus the most efficient vacuum pans of the present day are those which have their coils so arranged that no portion of them exceeds 50 or 60 ft.
These pans are sometimes heated by boiling oil, with the idea that under such conditions the sugar which is kept stirred all the time as it thickens cannot be burnt or caramelized; but the same object can be attained more economically with steam of a given pressure by utilizing its latent heat.
Very similar kinds of sugar are also produced for local consumption in Central America and in Mexico, under the names of " Panela " and " Chancaca," but in those countries the sugar is generally boiled in pans placed over special fire-places, and the factories making it are on a comparatively small scale, whereas in the Straits Settlements the " basket sugar " factories are of considerable importance, and are fitted with the most approved machinery.
The melting pans are generally circular vessels, fitted with a perforated false bottom, on which the sugar to be melted is dumped.
The pans are provided with steam worms to keep the mass hot as required, and with mechanical stirrers to keep it in movement and thoroughly mixed with the water and sweet water which are added to the sugar to obtain a solution of the specific gravity desired.
The filtered liquors, being collected in the various service tanks according to their qualities, are drawn up into the vacuum pans and boiled to crystals.
In this process cellulose (in the form of sawdust) is made into a stiff paste with a mixture of strong caustic potash and soda solution and heated in flat iron pans to 20o-250 C. The somewhat dark-coloured mass is lixiviated with a small amount of warm water in order to remove excess of alkali, the residual alkaline oxalates converted into insoluble calcium oxalate by boiling with milk of lime, the lime salt separated, and decomposed by means of sulphuric acid.
In the former case, the first reaction is produced in castiron pans or " pots," very heavy castings of circular section, fired from below, either directly or by the waste heat from the mufflefurnace.
The flame issuing from the furnace by (o) is always further utilized for boiling down the liquors obtained in a later stage, either in a pan (p) fired from the top and supported on pillars (qq) as shown in the drawing, or in pans heated from below.
\\ the back end, first into a large dust-chamber (m), and then over or under boiling-down pans (p) .
As these do not come out sufficiently pure, they would not be marketable and therefore they are not allowed to be formed, but the liquid, while still hot, is either run into the boiling-down pans, or submitted to one of the purifying operations to be described below.
If purer and stronger soda-ash is wanted, the boiling down must be carried out in pans fired from below, and the crystals of monohydrated sodium carbonate " fished " out as they are formed, but this is mostly done after submitting the liquor to the purifying operations which we shall now describe.
These boat-pans were for many years almost everywhere employed, and did their work quite well, but rather expensively.
At many works they have been replaced by either Thelen pans or vacuum pans.
Older pans, described above.
The ancient workings, consisting of shafts and galleries for excavating the ore, and pans and other arrangements for extracting the metal, may still be seen.
One difference between the manufacture of salt from rock-salt brine as carried on in Britain and on the Continent lies in the use in the latter case of closed or covered pans, except in the making of fine salt, whereas in Britain open ones are employed.
With open pans the vapour is free to diffuse itself into the atmosphere, and the evaporation is perhaps more rapid.