The part of the pancreas in digestion also is better understood.
This passes to the pancreas and causes increased secretion from that gland.
A third enzyme, the trypsin of the pancreas, possesses the power of both pepsin and erepsin.
The pancreas has two lobes or branches, a long one passing to the left and reaching the spleen, and a shorter right lobe.
These are sometimes erroneously spoken of as the "roots" of cancer, and in the case of cancer of the stomach they may fix it to the pancreas, the liver, the bowels or the spine.
The whole of the secretion here is poured into the blood and not at all on to a mucous surface, and herein the thyroid gland differs largely from such glands as the pancreas or peptic and intestinal glands.
Besides the private practice of his profession, he contributed largely to medical knowledge by the publication of several books, mainly on the anatomy of the pancreas and the abdominal viscera, by papers in the Proceedings of the Royal Society and in professional journals, and by editing for a time the Quarterly Medical Journal.
This group is represented by the erepsin of the pancreas and other organs.
When the pancreas is excised in an animal, or when it is destroyed in man by disease, grape-sugar appears in the urine.
The transplantation of a piece of living pancreas into the tissues of an animal, thus rendered artificially diabetic, is said to restore it to health.
Lord Lister's discoveries brought these new methods to bear with a certainty and a celerity previously undreamed of; and many visceral maladies, such as visceral ulcers, disease of the pancreas, stone of the kidney or gall-bladder, perityphlitis, ovarian dropsy, which in the earlier part of the 19th century were either fatal or crippling, are now taken promptly and safely in hand, and dealt with successfully.
There is much uncertainty as to the influence of atropine on the secretions of the stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas and kidneys, and it is not possible to make any definite statement, save that in all probability the activities of the nerves innervating the glandcells in these organs are reduced, though they are certainly not arrested, as in the other cases.
But it seems now probable that all glands which have what may be termed an external secretion like the pancreas, stomach, intestine, skin and kidneys have also an internal secretion, so that while they are pouring out one secretion from the ducts into the intestine or external air, they are also pouring into the lymphatics, and thus into the blood, an internal secretion.
We do not know at present if any corresponding anti-toxin or antitrypsin, as we may term it, is returned into the lymphatics or blood from the gland, but the pancreas, which in addition to secreting trypsin secretes a diastatic ferment forming sugar from starch, pours this into the intestine and secretes at the same time a glycolytic ferment which breaks up sugar, and this latter passes into the blood by way of the lymphatics.
In true diabetes, which probably originates in the central nervous system, or in disease of the pancreas, as well as in the glycosuria common in gouty patients, sugar in every form should be entirely forbidden, and starchy food restricted to within narrow limits.
Most commonly there is a pair of lateral caeca, which may be more or less ramified and may form a massive " hepato-pancreas " or " liver."
The bird's liver receives nearly all the blood from the stomach, gut, pancreas and spleen, as well as from the left liver itself, into the right hepatic lobe, by a right and left portal vein.
Kidneys, pancreas and the thyroid gland, also in muscle-plasma; " crystalline," a globulin occurring in two forms a and /3, is found in the lens of the eye; " egg-globulin " and " lactoglobulin " occur respectively in the white of egg and in milk.
It is probable that the pancreas in its turn also secretes something which activates a ferment in the muscles.
The secretion of trypsin by the pancreas may therefore be looked upon as the formation of a toxin.