There is also a fragmentary Targum (Palestinian) the relation of which to the others is obscure.
The Palestinian Talmud was completed in the 4th century, but the better known and more influential version was compiled in Babylonia about 500.
The Palestinian interpreters found in this the promise that 1 R.
In the last-mentioned work he seeks to prove that the St Petersburg Codex, for so many years accepted as the genuine text of the Babylonian school, is in reality a Palestinian text carefully altered so as to render it conformable to the Babylonian recension.
An ancient legend identifies Melchizedek with Shem (Palestinian Targum, Jerome on Isa.
This Palestinian town was in the 16th century the headquarters of the Kabbala.
Just as there is a Palestinian Targum on the Law parallel to the Babylonian Onkelos, so there is a Palestinian Targum (called Yerushalmi) on the Prophets parallel to that of Ben Uzziel, but of later date and incomplete.
The tradition, as in the case of the Targums, was again twofold; that which had grown up in the Palestinian Schools and that of Babylonia.
In the Palestinian Talmud (Yerushalmi) the gemara of the 5th order (Qodashim) and of nearly all the 6th (Tohoroth) is missing, besides smaller parts.
If Naaman was to be healed, it could only be in a Palestinian river, and :two mules' load of earth would be the only permanent guarantee of Yahweh's effective blessing on the Syrian general in his Syrian home.
Palestinian states on the other, and that they could scarcely have escaped the all-pervading Babylonian influences of 2000-1400 B.C. It is now becoming clearer every day, especially since the discovery of the laws of Khammurabi, that, if we are to think sanely about Hebrew history before as well as after the exile, we can only think of Israel as part of the great complex of Semitic and especially Canaanite humanity that lived its life in western Asia between 2060 and 600 B.C.; and that while the Hebrew race maintained by the aid of prophetism its own individual and exalted place, it was not less susceptible then, than it has been since, to the moulding influences of great adjacent civilizations and ideas.
As with his elder contemporary, the foreign peoples - (but in Isaiah's oracles Assyria and Egypt as well as the Palestinian races) - come within his survey.
Assyrian) script and language were now used, not merely in the diplomatic correspondence between Egypt and Asia, but also for matters of private and everyday life among the Palestinian princes themselves.
The growing prominence of the new northern group of " Hittite " states continued to occupy the energies of Egypt, and when again we have more external light upon Palestinian history, the Hittites are found strongly entrenched in the land.
The famous city, within easy reach of the southern desert and central Palestine (to Hebron and to Samaria the distances are about 18 and 35 miles respectively), had already entered into Palestinian history in the " Amarna " age (§ 3).
According to this view the enervating luxury of Palestinian culture almost destroyed the lofty ideal monotheism inculcated in the desert, and after the fall of the northern tribes (latter part of the 8th cent.) Judah is naturally regarded as the sole heir.
His reign is noteworthy for the entrance of Damascus into Palestinian politics.
They lived in comparative quietude; although Herodotus knows the Palestinian coast he does not mention the Jews.
When Edom is renowned for wisdom and a small Judaean family boasts of sages whose names have south Palestinian affinity (1 Chron.
Biblical, or rather Palestinian, thought has been brought into the world of ancient Oriental life, and this life, in spite of the various forms in which it has from time to time been shaped, still rules in the East.
- Toward the end of the 3rd century the Palestinian Jews became involved in the struggle between Egypt and Syria.
The pro-Syrian faction of the Palestinian Jews found their opportunity in this emergency and informed the governor of Coele-Syria that the treasury in Jerusalem contained untold sums of money.
Through them the experience of the dispersion was brought to bear upon the Palestinian Jews.
So we learn something of the Palestinian Jews and more of the Jewish community in Alexandria.
With him the importance of the Palestinian patriarchate attained its zenith.
Here, far more than on Palestinian soil, was built the enduring edifice of rabbinism.
The exilarch claimed, like the Palestinian patriarch, descent from the royal house of David, and exercised most of the functions of [[[Dispersion To Modern Times]] government.
JUSTIN MARTYR, one of the earliest and ablest Christian apologists, was born about loo at Flavia Neapolis (anc. Sichem), now Nablus, in Palestinian Syria (Samaria).
This is possibly the case with regard to the older culture of Canaan in the preceding millennium, of which Palestinian excavations have yielded few traces, though we know it existed.32 War destroyed it: Palestine was the cockpit of Asia.
29 sqq.) - that is, with the south Palestinian clans with which the term "Levites" appears to be closely connected.
As a teacher he was one of the first to discriminate between the various strata in rabbinic records; to him was due the revival of interest in the older Midrash and in the Palestinian Talmud, interest in which had been weak for some centuries before his time.
Sidetes) by their testimony before the authorities brought to an end the (Palestinian) persecution of Domitian (Hegesippus ap. Eus.
JOHANAN BEN ZACCAI, Palestinian rabbi, contemporary of the Apostles.
The method, by which the text was thus utilized as a vehicle for conveying homiletic discourses, traditional sayings, legends and allegories, is abundantly illustrated by the Palestinian and later Targums, as opposed to the more sober translations of Onkelos and the Targum to the Prophets.
According to Dalman, 13 its language differs in many material particulars from the Aramaic dialects of the Palestinian and Babylonian Talmuds, and is more closely allied to the biblical Aramaic. On the linguistic side, therefore, we may regard Onkelos " as a faithful representative of a Targum which had its rise in Judaea, the old seat of Palestinian literary activity."
It is not, however, to be regarded as a reproduction in written form of a Palestinian translation, but rather as an official translation of the Law, in the Judaean dialect, which was carried out in Babylon, probably about the 4th century A.D.: in its final form, according to Dalman (l.c.) it cannot be earlier than the 5th century.
In regard to the source of the two Palestinian Targums to the Pentateuch, we must accept the conclusion of Bassfreund 4 that they both derived their variants from a complete Targum Jerushalmi.
But though the existence of an older Targum Jerushalmi cannot be denied, it is clear that the form in which it was utilized by the two Palestinian Targums cannot be of an early date, for many of the latest elements in the Fragmentary and pseudo-Jonathan Targums were undoubtedly derived from their common source.
Moreover, the existence of a written Palestinian Targum at an early date is expressly excluded by the evidence at our disposal.
Even in the time of the later Amoraim there is no mention of a written Palestinian Targum, though the official Babylonian Targum is repeatedly referred to in the Babylonian Talmud, in the Midrashim, and at times also by Palestinian Amoraim.
The language employed in the Targum of Onkelos is, admittedly, Palestinian or Judaean, and since language and thought are ever closely allied, we may conjecture that the current Judaean exegesis, which, in part at least, must go back to the 2nd century A.D., was not without its influence on the Babylonian translation.
In its present form, however, it has been incorporated in a prophecy against Judah, belonging, most probably, to the years 705-701, when a new Palestinian rising provoked Sennacherib's campaign of 701 (Nowack; cf.