Rupert, who from 1353 to 1390 was sole ruler, gained the electoral dignity for the Palatinate of the Rhine in 1356 by a grant of some lands in upper Bavaria to the emperor Charles IV.
As the capital of the palatinate and as the nearest port for Ireland, Pembroke was in Plantagenet times one of the most important fortified cities in the kingdom.
Having gained Thuringia and the Saxon palatinate on his uncle's death in 1247, he granted sections of his lands to his three sons in 1265, but retained Meissen.
In 1211 Henry abdicated in favour of his son Henry, who died in 1214, when the Palatinate was given by the German king Frederick II.
The Palatinate was ruled by Louis of Bavaria on behalf of his son until 1228, when it passed to Otto who ruled until his death in 12J3.
Received the Palatinate and Upper Bavaria.
By the Treaty of Pavia in 1329, Louis granted the Palatinate to his nephews Rudolph II.
And Rupert I., who received from him at the same time a portion of the duchy of Upper Bavaria, which was called the upper Palatinate to distinguish it from the Rhenish, or lower Palatinate.
In 1355 he had sold a portion of the upper Palatinate to the emperor Charles IV., but by various purchases he increased the area of the Rhenish Palatinate.
In 1400 Rupert was elected German king, and when he died in 1410 his possessions were divided among his four sons: the eldest, Louis III., received the Rhenish Palatinate proper; the second son, John, obtained the upper Palatinate; while the outlying districts of Zweibriicken and Simmern passed to Stephen, and that of Mosbach to Otto.
When the possessions of the house of Wittelsbach were divided in 1255 and the branches of Bavaria and the Palatinate were founded, a dispute arose over the exercise of the electoral vote, and the question was not settled until in 1356 the Golden Bull bestowed the privilege upon the count palatine of the Rhine, who exercised it until 1623.
To return to the history of the Palatinate as divided into four parts among the sons of the German king Rupert in 1410.
At the peace of Westphalia in 1648 the Palatinate was restored to Frederick's son, Charles Louis, but it was shorn of the upper Palatinate, which Bavaria retained as the prize of war.
Scarcely had the Palatinate begun to recover when it was attacked by Louis XIV.
His troops took Heidelberg and devastated the Palatinate, while Philip William took refuge in Vienna, where he died in 1690.
Just before this date the Palatinate began to be disturbed by troubles about religion.
His successor was his kinsman, Charles Theodore, count palatine of Sulzbach, a cadet of the Zweibriicken-Neuburg line, and now with the exception of one or two small pieces the whole of the Palatinate was united under one ruler.
In 1777 on the extinction of the other branch of the house of Wittelsbach, he became elector of Bavaria, and the Palatinate was henceforward united with Bavaria, the elector's capital being Munich.
In 1802 the elector was obliged to cede the portion of the Palatinate lying on the left bank of the Rhine to France, and other portions to Baden and to Hesse-Darmstadt.
Much of this, however, was regained in 1815, and since that date the Palatinate has formed part of the kingdom of Bavaria.
FRIEDRICH FRANZ KARL HECKER (1811-1881), German revolutionist, was born at Eichtersheim in the Palatinate on the 28th of September 1811, his father being a revenue official.
In 1388-1389 Frankfort assisted the South German towns in their wars with the princes and nobles (the Stadtekrieg), and in a consequent battle with the troops of the Palatinate, the town banner was lost and carried to Kronberg, where it was long preserved as a trophy.
And practically throughout its whole length by the Rhine, which separates it from the Bavarian Palatinate and the imperial province of Alsace-Lorraine; S.
In 1803, largely owing to the good offices of Alexander I., emperor of Russia, he received the bishopric of Constance, part of the Rhenish Palatinate, and other smaller districts, together with the dignity of a prince elector.
By the treaty of the 16th of April 1816, by which the territorial disputes between Austria and Bavaria were settled, the succession to the Baden Palatinate was guaranteed to Maximilian I., king of Bavaria, in the expected event of the extinction of the line of Zahringen.
From 1330 to 1622, when it was conquered by Austria, the town formed part of the Palatinate of the Rhine.
Turenne then laid waste the Palatinate, in order that it should no longer support an army, and fell back over the Rhine, ignoring the reproaches of the elector palatine, who vainly challenged him to a duel.
The French now laid waste the land between the Meuse and Moselle for the same reason which brought about the devastation of the Palatinate in 1674, and the year closed with a war of manoeuvre on the upper Rhine between the Imperialists under the duke of Lorraine and the French under Luxemburg.
LANDAU, a town in the Bavarian Palatinate, on the Queich, lying under the eastern slope of the Hardt Mountains, 32 m.
This dignity was soon lost, as in 1317 it passed to the bishopric of Spires and in 1331 to the Palatinate, recovering its former position in 1511.
It was a marked characteristic of the English colonists, and a strong element in their prosperity, that they were hospitable in welcoming men of other races, - Germans from the Palatinate, and French Huguenots driven out by persecution who brought with them some capital, more intelligence and an enduring hatred of Roman Catholic France.
His parents, having embraced the principles of the Reformation, emigrated to the Palatinate in 1578, in order to enjoy freedom to profess their new faith, and they sent their son to be educated at Strassburg under Johann Sturm (1507-1589).
DORT An assembly of the Reformed Dutch Church, with deputies from Switzerland, the Palatinate, Nassau, Hesse, East Friesland, Bremen, Scotland and England, called to decide the theological differences existing between the Arminians (or Remonstrants) and the Calvinists (or Counter-Remonstrants), was held at Dort or Dordrecht in the years 1618 and 1619.
By the Bavarian Palatinate, the Prussian Rhine Province and Luxemburg, and W.
He acquired the Saxon palatinate in 1179, on the death of Adalbert, count of Sommerschenburg, went to Italy to assist Frederick I.
Henry, however, found himself obliged to defend his title against Sophia, wife of Henry II., duke of Brabant, who was a daughter of the landgrave Louis IV., and it was not till 1263 that an arrangement was made by which Thuringia and the Saxon palatinate fell to Henry.
He then became private tutor to the princes Christian and Charles of the Palatinate, and lectured in the university on philology and history.
It was at first adopted and then rejected by Brunswick, the Palatinate and Brandenburg.
Browne, Maryland: the History of a Palatinate (Boston, 188 4 and 1895), an excellent outline of the colonial history; N.
The Reformed churches of the Palatinate, on the other hand, used the Heidelberg Catechism (1562-1563), "sweetspirited, experiential, clear, moderate and happily-phrased," mainly the work of two of Calvin's younger disciples, Kaspar Olevianus and Zacharias Ursinus.
Louis' son, Otto the Illustrious (1206-1253), undertook the government of the Palatinate in 1228, and became duke of Bavaria in 1231.
(1228-1294) received upper Bavaria and the Palatinate of the Rhine, and Henry I.
By the treaty of Pavia in this year, Louis granted the Palatinate of the Rhine and the upper Palatinate of Bavaria to his brother's sons, Rudolph II.
These were reunited under Albert IV., duke of Bavaria-Munich (1447-1508) and the upper Palatinate was added to them in 1628.
The Palatinate of the Rhine, after the death of Rupert I.
(the "Winter King") was driven from his dominions, the electoral privilege was transferred to Bavaria, and in 1648, by the Peace of Westphalia, an eighth electorate was created for the Wittelsbachs of the Palatinate, and was exercised by the senior branch of the family.
It remained the capital of the Palatinate for nearly sixty years, being especially flourishing under the elector Charles Theodore.
ZWEIBRUCKEN, a town of Germany, in the Palatinate, on the Schwarzbach, and on the railway between Germersheim and Saarbrucken.
AMBERG, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria, formerly the capital of the Upper Palatinate, situated on both sides of the Vils, 42 m.
LUDWIGSHAFEN, a town of Germany, in the Bavarian Palatinate, on the left bank of the Rhine, immediately opposite to Mannheim, with which it is connected by a steam ferry and a railway bridge.
Caub, first mentioned in the year 983, originally belonged to the lords of Falkenstein, passed in 1277 to the Rhenish Palatinate, and attained civic rights in 1324.
As a borough of the Palatinate Hartlepool was not represented in parliament until the 19th century, though strong arguments in its favour were advanced in the Commons in 1614.
ANWEILER, or Annweiler, a town of Germany, in the Bavarian Palatinate, on the Queich, 8 m.
It is romantically situated in the part of the Haardt called the Pfalzer Schweiz (Palatinate Switzerland), and is surrounded by high hills which yield a famous red sandstone.
CASPAR SCHOPPE (1576-1649), German controversialist and scholar, was born at Neumarkt in the upper Palatinate on the 27th of May 1576 and studied at several German universities.
But a treaty was concluded here on the 28th of May 1741, between Bavaria and Spain, and another between Bavaria and the Rhenish Palatinate in 1766.
VOSSIUS [Voss], Gerhard Johann (1577-1649), German classical scholar and theologian, was the son of Johannes Voss, a Protestant of the Netherlands, who fled from persecution into the Palatinate and became pastor in the village near Heidelberg where Gerhard was born.
Johannes was a Calvinist, however, and the strict Lutherans of the Palatinate caused him once more to become a wanderer; in 1578 he settled at Leiden as student of theology, and finally became pastor at Dort, where he died in 1585.
It was Frederick, count palatine of Simmern, who succeeded to the Palatinate on Otto Henry's death, becoming the elector Frederick III.
PAUL HEINRICH DIETRICH HOLBACH, BARON D' (1723-1789), French philosopher and man of letters, of German origin, was born at Heildeisheim in the palatinate in 1723.