By the Treaty of Pavia in 1329, Louis granted the Palatinate to his nephews Rudolph II.
Louis' son, Otto the Illustrious (1206-1253), undertook the government of the Palatinate in 1228, and became duke of Bavaria in 1231.
(1228-1294) received upper Bavaria and the Palatinate of the Rhine, and Henry I.
Rupert, who from 1353 to 1390 was sole ruler, gained the electoral dignity for the Palatinate of the Rhine in 1356 by a grant of some lands in upper Bavaria to the emperor Charles IV.
These were reunited under Albert IV., duke of Bavaria-Munich (1447-1508) and the upper Palatinate was added to them in 1628.
(the "Winter King") was driven from his dominions, the electoral privilege was transferred to Bavaria, and in 1648, by the Peace of Westphalia, an eighth electorate was created for the Wittelsbachs of the Palatinate, and was exercised by the senior branch of the family.
It remained the capital of the Palatinate for nearly sixty years, being especially flourishing under the elector Charles Theodore.
ZWEIBRUCKEN, a town of Germany, in the Palatinate, on the Schwarzbach, and on the railway between Germersheim and Saarbrucken.
AMBERG, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria, formerly the capital of the Upper Palatinate, situated on both sides of the Vils, 42 m.
LUDWIGSHAFEN, a town of Germany, in the Bavarian Palatinate, on the left bank of the Rhine, immediately opposite to Mannheim, with which it is connected by a steam ferry and a railway bridge.
Caub, first mentioned in the year 983, originally belonged to the lords of Falkenstein, passed in 1277 to the Rhenish Palatinate, and attained civic rights in 1324.
As a borough of the Palatinate Hartlepool was not represented in parliament until the 19th century, though strong arguments in its favour were advanced in the Commons in 1614.
ANWEILER, or Annweiler, a town of Germany, in the Bavarian Palatinate, on the Queich, 8 m.
It is romantically situated in the part of the Haardt called the Pfalzer Schweiz (Palatinate Switzerland), and is surrounded by high hills which yield a famous red sandstone.
CASPAR SCHOPPE (1576-1649), German controversialist and scholar, was born at Neumarkt in the upper Palatinate on the 27th of May 1576 and studied at several German universities.
But a treaty was concluded here on the 28th of May 1741, between Bavaria and Spain, and another between Bavaria and the Rhenish Palatinate in 1766.
VOSSIUS [Voss], Gerhard Johann (1577-1649), German classical scholar and theologian, was the son of Johannes Voss, a Protestant of the Netherlands, who fled from persecution into the Palatinate and became pastor in the village near Heidelberg where Gerhard was born.
Johannes was a Calvinist, however, and the strict Lutherans of the Palatinate caused him once more to become a wanderer; in 1578 he settled at Leiden as student of theology, and finally became pastor at Dort, where he died in 1585.
As the capital of the palatinate and as the nearest port for Ireland, Pembroke was in Plantagenet times one of the most important fortified cities in the kingdom.
Having gained Thuringia and the Saxon palatinate on his uncle's death in 1247, he granted sections of his lands to his three sons in 1265, but retained Meissen.
In 1211 Henry abdicated in favour of his son Henry, who died in 1214, when the Palatinate was given by the German king Frederick II.
The Palatinate was ruled by Louis of Bavaria on behalf of his son until 1228, when it passed to Otto who ruled until his death in 12J3.
Received the Palatinate and Upper Bavaria.
And Rupert I., who received from him at the same time a portion of the duchy of Upper Bavaria, which was called the upper Palatinate to distinguish it from the Rhenish, or lower Palatinate.
In 1355 he had sold a portion of the upper Palatinate to the emperor Charles IV., but by various purchases he increased the area of the Rhenish Palatinate.
In 1400 Rupert was elected German king, and when he died in 1410 his possessions were divided among his four sons: the eldest, Louis III., received the Rhenish Palatinate proper; the second son, John, obtained the upper Palatinate; while the outlying districts of Zweibriicken and Simmern passed to Stephen, and that of Mosbach to Otto.
When the possessions of the house of Wittelsbach were divided in 1255 and the branches of Bavaria and the Palatinate were founded, a dispute arose over the exercise of the electoral vote, and the question was not settled until in 1356 the Golden Bull bestowed the privilege upon the count palatine of the Rhine, who exercised it until 1623.
To return to the history of the Palatinate as divided into four parts among the sons of the German king Rupert in 1410.
John, the second of these brothers, died in 1443, and his son Christopher, having become king of Denmark in 1440, did not inherit the upper Palatinate, which was again united with the Rhenish Palatinate.
It was Frederick, count palatine of Simmern, who succeeded to the Palatinate on Otto Henry's death, becoming the elector Frederick III.
At the peace of Westphalia in 1648 the Palatinate was restored to Frederick's son, Charles Louis, but it was shorn of the upper Palatinate, which Bavaria retained as the prize of war.
The Reformed churches of the Palatinate, on the other hand, used the Heidelberg Catechism (1562-1563), "sweetspirited, experiential, clear, moderate and happily-phrased," mainly the work of two of Calvin's younger disciples, Kaspar Olevianus and Zacharias Ursinus.
Browne, Maryland: the History of a Palatinate (Boston, 188 4 and 1895), an excellent outline of the colonial history; N.
PAUL HEINRICH DIETRICH HOLBACH, BARON D' (1723-1789), French philosopher and man of letters, of German origin, was born at Heildeisheim in the palatinate in 1723.
It was at first adopted and then rejected by Brunswick, the Palatinate and Brandenburg.
He then became private tutor to the princes Christian and Charles of the Palatinate, and lectured in the university on philology and history.
He acquired the Saxon palatinate in 1179, on the death of Adalbert, count of Sommerschenburg, went to Italy to assist Frederick I.
Henry, however, found himself obliged to defend his title against Sophia, wife of Henry II., duke of Brabant, who was a daughter of the landgrave Louis IV., and it was not till 1263 that an arrangement was made by which Thuringia and the Saxon palatinate fell to Henry.
By the Bavarian Palatinate, the Prussian Rhine Province and Luxemburg, and W.
DORT An assembly of the Reformed Dutch Church, with deputies from Switzerland, the Palatinate, Nassau, Hesse, East Friesland, Bremen, Scotland and England, called to decide the theological differences existing between the Arminians (or Remonstrants) and the Calvinists (or Counter-Remonstrants), was held at Dort or Dordrecht in the years 1618 and 1619.
His parents, having embraced the principles of the Reformation, emigrated to the Palatinate in 1578, in order to enjoy freedom to profess their new faith, and they sent their son to be educated at Strassburg under Johann Sturm (1507-1589).
It was a marked characteristic of the English colonists, and a strong element in their prosperity, that they were hospitable in welcoming men of other races, - Germans from the Palatinate, and French Huguenots driven out by persecution who brought with them some capital, more intelligence and an enduring hatred of Roman Catholic France.