Distribution is treated of under ZOOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION, PLANKTON, PALAEONTOLOGY and PLANTS: Distribution.
Gregory, "Contributions to the Palaeontology and Physical Geology of the West Indies," ibid.
Palaeontology both borrows from and sheds light upon geology and other branches of the physical history of the earth, each of which, such as palaeogeography or palaeometeorology, is the more fascinating because of the large element of the unknown, the need for constructive imagination, the appeal to other branches of biological and physical investigation for supplementary evidence, and the necessity of constant comparison with the present aspects of nature.
Progress in the science also depends upon the pursuit of palaeontology as zoology and not as geology, because it was a mere accident of birth which connected palaeontology so closely with geology.
Eastman's TextBook of Palaeontology (1900-1902).
For the loan of several figures from the translations published by them of the admirable treatise on Embryology by Professors Korschelt and Heider; also to the publishers of the treatise on Palaeontology by Professor Zittel, Herr Oldenbourg and The Macmillan Co., New York, for several cuts of extinct forms.
(From Zittel's Palaeontology.) (After Beecher.) appendages.
(From Zittel's Textbook of Palaeontology, The Macmillan Co., New York, 1896.) Appendages of anterior pair very large and chelate.
Zittel, American edition of his Palaeontology (the Macmillan Co., New York), where ample references to the literature of Trilobitae and Eurypteridae will be found; also references to literature of fossil Scorpions and Spiders; 23.
Thus Bionomics is treated in such articles as Evolution, Heredity, Variation, Mendelism, Reproduction, Sex, &C.; Zoo-dynamics under Medicine, Surgery, Physiology, Anatomy, Embryology, and allied articles; Plasmology under Cytology, Protoplasm, &C.; and Philosophical Zoology under numerous headings, Evolution, Biology, &C. See also Zoological Distribution, Palaeontology, Ocranography, Microtomy, &C.
- For general accounts of the structure and development of the Polyzoa the reader's attention is specially directed to 12, 14, 6, 25, I, 2, 17, 26, 18, 23, 3, in the list given below; for an historical account to i; for a full bibliography of the group, to 22; for fresh-water forms, to 1-3, 7-10, 17; for an indispensable synonymic list of recent marine forms, to 15; for Entoprocta, to to, II, 24; for the classification of Gymnolaemata, to 21, 1 4, 4, 13, 20; for Palaeontology, to 27, 22.
(27) Ulrich, "Fossil Polyzoa," in Zittel's Text-book of Palaeontology, Eng.
Palaeontology is the study of the fossils found in the various strata of which the earth is composed.
In recent years the science of vegetable palaeontology has been given the distinct name of Palaeobotany, so that " palaeontology e' among biologists mainly refers to zoology; but historically the two cannot be disconnected.
In order to illustrate the grateful services which palaeontology through restoration may render to the related earth sciences let us imagine a vast continent of the past wholly unknown in its physical features, elevation, climate, configuration, but richly represented by fossil remains.
Therefore adaptation is the central principle of modern palaeontology in its most comprehensive sense.
Progress in these two lines is by no means uniform; while, for example, palaeontology enjoyed a sudden advance early in the 19th century through the discoveries and researches of Cuvier, guided by his genius as a comparative anatomist, it was checked by his failure as a natural philosopher.
In future the philosophic method of palaeontology must continue to advance step by step with exploration; it would be a reproach to later generations if they did not progress as far beyond the philosophic status of Cuvier, Owen and even of Huxley and Cope, as the new materials represent an advance upon the material opportunities which came to them through exploration.
To set forth how best to do our thinking, rather than to follow the triumphs achieved in any particular line of exploration, and to present the point we have now reached in the method or principles of palaeontology, is the chief purpose of this article.
The subject will be treated in its biological aspects, because the relations of palaeontology to historical and stratigraphic geology are more appropriately considered under the article Geology.
II.-Second Historic Period Invertebrate palaeontology founded by Lamarck, vertebrate palaeontology by Cuvier.
Palaeontology connected with comparative anatomy by Cuvier.
Political troubles and the dominating influence of Werner's speculations checked palaeontology in Germany, while under the leadership of Lamarck and Cuvier France came to the fore.
The treatise which laid the foundation for all subsequent invertebrate palaeontology was his memoir, Sur les fossiles des environs de Paris..
Cuvier (1769-1832) is famous as the founder of vertebrate palaeontology, and with Alexandre Brongniart (1770-1847) as the author of the first exact contribution to stratigraphic geology.
Following Cuvier's Recherches sur les ossemens fossiles, the rich succession of Tertiary mammalian life was gradually revealed to France through the explorations and descriptions of such authors as Croizet, Jobert, de Christol, Eymar, Pomel and Lartet, during a period of rather dry, systematic work, which included, however, the broader generalizations of Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville (1778-1850), and culminated in the comprehensive treatises on Tertiary palaeontology of Paul Gervais (1816-1879).
Non-committal as regards evolution, he vastly broadened the field of vertebrate palaeontology by his descriptions of the extinct fauna of England, of South America (including especially the great edentates revealed by the voyage of the " Beagle "), of Australia (the ancient and modern marsupials) and of New Zealand (the great struthious birds).
The history of invertebrate palaeontology during the second period is more closely connected with the rise of historic geology and stratigraphy, especially with the settlement of the great and minor time divisions of the earth's history.
He thus exerted a potent influence on palaeontology through his persistent advocacy of uniformitarianism, a doctrine with which Lamarck should also be credited.
On the whole, as in the case of vertebrate palaeontology, the pre-Darwinian period of invertebrate palaeontology was one of rather dry systematic description, in which, however, the applications of the science gradually extended to many regions of the world and to all divisions of the kingdom of invertebrates.
It appears from comparison of the work in the two great divisions of vertebrate and invertebrate palaeontology made for the first time in this article that in accuracy of observation and in close philosophical analysis of facts the students of invertebrate palaeontology led the way.
This study of direct genetic series marked another great advance, and became possible in invertebrate palaeontology long before it was introduced among the vertebrates.
This definitely directed evolution, or development in a few determinable directions, has since been termed " orthogenetic evolution," and is recognized by all workers in invertebrate palaeontology and phylogeny as fundamental because the facts of invertebrate palaeontology admit of no other interpretation.
Melchior Neumayr, the great Austrian palaeontologist, especially extended the philosophic foundations of modern invertebrate palaeontology, and traced a number of continuous genetic series (formenreihe) in successive horizons.
Huxley's development of the method of palaeontology should be studied in his collected memoirs (Scientific Memoirs of Thomas Henry Huxley, 4 vols., 1898).
IV.-Relations Of Palaeontology To Other Physical Earth Sciences Geology and Palaeophysiography.
' It is to palaeogeography and zoogeography in their reciprocal relations that palaeontology has rendered the most unique services.
Sclater, Alfred Russel Wallace and others, largely upon the present distribution of animal life, is now encountering through palaeontology a new and fascinating series of problems. In brief, it must connect living distribution with distribution in past time, and develop a system which will be in harmony with the main facts of zoology and palaeontology.
V.-Relations Of Palaeontology To Other Zoological Methods Systematic Zoology.
Thus palaeontology has brought to light an entirely new nomenclatural problem, which can only be solved by resolutely adopting an entirely different principle.
In following the discovery of the law of recapitulation among palaeontologists we have clearly stated the chief contribution of palaeontology to the science of ontogeny - namely, the correspondences and differences between FIG.
In the face of the continuous series of characters and types revealed by palaeontology, the Linnaean terminology, the individual order of development and the ancestral order of evolution.
The mutual relations of palaeontology and embryology and comparative anatomy as means of determining the ancestry of animals are most interesting.
In tracing the phylogeny, or ancestral history of organs, palaeontology affords the only absolute criterion on the successive evolution of organs in time as well as of (progressive) evolution in form.
Lung-fish (Ceratodus) was the most primitive (or Archipterygium), placed as the primordial type a fin which palaeontology has proved to be one of the latest types if not the last.
Step by step there have been established in palaeontology a number of laws relating to the evolution of the parts of animals which closely coincide with similar laws discovered by zoologists.
The traces of alternations of adaptations corresponding to these alternations of habitat are recorded both in palaeontology and anatomy, although often after the obscure analogy of the earlier and later writings of a palimpsest.
We are thus working out gradually the separate contributions of the land masses of North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and of Australia to the mammalian fauna of the world, a result which can be obtained through palaeontology only.
It should be remembered that palaeontology is the most unfavourable field of all for observation and demonstration of sudden saltations or mutations of character, because of the limited materials available for comparison and the rarity of genetic series.
Such sudden appearances may be demonstrated possibly in zoology and embryology but never can be demonstrated by palaeontology, because of the incompleteness of the geological record.
- Underlying Biological Principles As They Appear To The Palaeontologist It follows from the above brief summary that palaeontology affords a distinct and highly suggestive field of purely biological research; that is, of the causes of evolution underlying the observable modes which we have been describing.
We have shown that the direct observation of the origin of new characters in palaeontology brings them within that domain of natural law and order to which the evolution of the physical universe conforms. The nature of this law, which, upon the whole, appears to be purposive or teleological in its operations, is altogether a mystery which may or may not be illumined by future research.
The most comprehensive and up-to-date reference work on the history of geology and palaeontology is Geschichte der Geologie and Paldontologie, by Karl Alfred von Zittel (Munich and Leipzig, 1899), the final life-work of this great authority, translated into English in part by Maria M.
His work on palaeontology shows him the predecessor of all the Scandinavian geologists, and his contributions in this field alone would have been sufficient to perpetuate his fame.
Among the older works on the history of palaeontology are the treatises of Giovanni Battista Brocchi (1772-1826), Conchiologia fossile Subappenina ...
Ogilvie-Gordon, entitled " History of Geology and Palaeontology to the end of the 19th Century."
A classic but unfinished work describing the methods of invertebrate palaeontology is Die Stamme des Thierreichs (Vienna, 1889), by Melchior Neumayr.
The public library and museum, on the north side of Grand Avenue, in addition to an excellent collection of natural history, palaeontology, &c., contained in 1909 a library of about 190,000 volumes.
It became established as a distinct branch in the beginning of the 19th century, and somewhat later received the appellation " palaeontology," which was given independently by De Blainville and by Fischer von Waldheim about 1834.