There were also a good many crypto-pagans among the educated population of the capital.
The pagans had statues of deities and places of sacrifice.
8), the distinctive badge of the wandering professional teacher of philosophy, and went about from place to place discussing the truths of Christianity in the hope of bringing educated Pagans, as he himself had been brought, through philosophy to Christ.
He exhibited severity and injustice when dealing with pagans and heretics.
In Rome, as at home, Gamaliel often had occasion to defend Judaism in polemical discussions with pagans, and also with professed Christians.
It was at this juncture that Tertullian, the most famous theologian of the West, left the Church whose cause he had so manfully upheld against pagans and heretics.
This was the belief of the pagans, and the Christians for centuries shared it with them.
Lactantius preserves the answer of the pagans so attacked (De origine Erroris, ii.2): We do not, they said, fear the images themselves, but those beings after whose likeness they were fashioned and by whose names they were consecrated.
For long generations the doctors of the Church fought bravely against such an infusion of heathen customs; thus in Latin countries we find the rule to keep New Year's day as a fast, just because the pagans feasted on it, giving one another gifts (strenae, Fr.
Nor because the pagans regarded the close meetings of the Christians usually held in private houses as mysteries in which incest and cannibalism were rife, does it follow that the Christians themselves accepted the comparison.
31, Migne 25, 300) that a court of law had not been cleared of catechumens, Jews and pagans, in a case where the legal discussion introduced the topic of the table of Christ; and the preachers of the 4th and 1 Perhaps, however, Pliny refers only to the renegades among them.
He wrote polemical words directed against the pagans, the Jews and heretics.
Atheists, theists, pagans, Jews and Mahommedans," with the proviso that controversies between Christians were not to be mentioned.
Here he wrote his Neue Apologie des Socrates (1772), a work occasioned by an attack on the fifteenth chapter of Marmontel's Belisarius made by Peter Hofstede, a clergyman of Rotterdam, who maintained the patristic view that the virtues of the noblest pagans were only splendida peccata.
But these views were not those of the uninstructed pagans who filled the churches and needed a rite which brought them, as their old sacrifices had done, into physical contact and union with their god.
18-22 assimilate communion in the flesh and blood of Jesus, on the one hand, to the sacrificial communion with the altar which made Israel after the flesh one; and on the other to the communion with devils attained by pagans through sacrifices offered before idols.
It is their analogue, and to understand it we must understand them, not forgetting that Paul, as a Semite, and his hearers, as converted pagans, were imbued with the sacrificial ideas of the old world.
And they say that Ormuzd and Ahriman are brothers, and in consequence of this saying they shall come to annihilation."In the same fragment the Christians are condemned as worshippers of idols, unless indeed the writer has genuine pagans in view.
In other respects they are pagans in a low state of culture, mostly divided into hostile communities and addicted to piracy.
The contemporary ecclesiastics recorded with wonder many instances of their clemency: the Christian churches saved from ravage; protection granted to vast multitudes both of pagans and Christians who took refuge therein; vessels of gold and silver which were found in a private dwelling, spared because they "belonged to St.
As no preceding sovereign had been so much interested in church affairs, so none seems to have shown so much activity as a persecutor both of pagans and of heretics.
Pagans (1907); C. Werner, Die Italienische Philosophie des 19.
The Chinese have their joss-houses and the Mahommedans a few small mosques, but the vast majority of the native inhabitants are pagans who have no buildings set apart for religious purposes.
The Hindus, like the pagans of antiquity, adore natural objects and forces - a mountain, a river or an animal.
Most of the African population are pagans and each tribe has its secret societies and fetishes.
" We see," he wrote, " a rite peculiar to the pagans introduced into the churches on pretext of religion, and, while the sun is still shining, a mass of wax tapers lighted..
(3) Bishops in partibus infidelium were originally those who had been expelled from their sees by the pagans, and, while retaining their titles, were appointed to assist diocesan bishops in their work.
The pagan population has been classified for practical purposes as Hill pagans and Plains pagans, Mounted pagans and Foot pagans.
The Foot pagans of the plains were brought under the Fula yoke in the beginning of the 19th century and have never cast it off.
The Hill pagans were partly conquered, but many remained independent or have since succeeded in asserting their freedom.
The Mounted pagans are confined to the healthy plateaus of the south-west corner of the province.
It is impossible to prove that either of the documents actually refers to Christians: they may have been given to pagans who had been accused and had cleared themselves, or to former Christians who had apostatized.
The Hausa, whose conversion to Mahommedanism began in the 12th century, were still in the 18th century partly pagans, though their rulers were followers of the Prophet.
We hear of the conversion of pagans down to the last days of the Visigothic kingdom.
As regards the former the Church adopted a course midway between metaphysical explanations and historical traditions, and reconciled the more extreme theories; while with the admission of pagans a great deal of paganism itself was introduced.
All were pagans; all enemies of Charlemagne, defender of Christs Church, and hence the appointed conqueror of the world.
Owing to these controversies the real work of the early Irish missionaries in converting the pagans of Britain and central Europe, and sowing the seeds of culture there, is apt to be overlooked.
Could it be, as the pagans said, because the age had forsaken its old gods?
The very institutions of the Solovets monastery, intended by St Tryphon for the benefit of the poor neglected pagans, turned out the occasion of much injustice towards them.
To the same class belong the treatise To Ablavius, against the tritheists; On Faith, against the Arians; On Common Notions, in explanation of the terms in current employment with regard to the Trinity; Ten Syllogisms, against the Manichaeans; To Theophilus, against the Apollinarians; an Antirrhetic against the same; Against Fate, a disputation with a heathen philosopher; De anima et resurrectione, a dialogue with his dying sister Macrina; and the Oratio catechetica magna, an argument for the incarnation as the best possible form of redemption, intended to convince educated pagans and Jews.
The idea of re-birth was in the air; it was the very keynote of all the solemn initiations and mysteries - Mythraic, Orphic, Eleusinian - through which repentant pagans secured pardon and eternal bliss.
Arians and Semi-Arians seemed to him to be pagans, who worship the creature, instead of the God who created all things, since they teach two gods, one having no beginning, the other having a beginning in Time and therefore of the same nature as the heathen gods, since, like them, he is a creature.