PAESTUM (Gr.IIoaecScwvia; mod.
The neighbourhood was then healthy, highly cultivated, and celebrated for its flowers; the "twice blooming roses of Paestum" are mentioned by Virgil (Geor.
In 871 Paestum was sacked and partly destroyed by Saracen invaders; in the 11th century it was further dismantled by Robert Guiscard, and in the 16th century was finally deserted.
The earliest temple in Paestum, the socalled Basilica, must in point of style be associated with the temples D and F at Selinus, and is therefore to be dated about 57 0 -554 B.C.'
The most famous of the temples of Paestum, the so-called temple of Neptune, comes next in point of date (about 420 B.C.).
1 i seq.) they made alliance with Rome, and Roman influence was extended by the colonies of Venusia (291 B.C.), Paestum (273), and above all Tarentum (272).
On the west coast stood Posidonia, known under the Roman government as Paestum; below that came Elea or Velia, Pyxus, called by the Romans Buxentum, and Laus, near the frontier of the province towards Bruttium.
The chief buildings are the theatre, the prefecture, and the cathedral of St Matthew (whose bones were brought from Paestum to Salerno in 954), begun in 1076 by Robert Guiscard and consecrated in 1084 by Gregory VII.
In front is a beautiful quadrangular court (112 by 102 ft.), surrounded by arcades formed of twenty-eight ancient pillars mostly of granite from Paestum, and containing twelve sarcophagi of various periods; the middle entrance into the church is closed by remarkable bronze doors of 11th-century Byzantine work.
Proclaimed it his private property independently of the crown, placed in it the Farnese collection which he had inherited from his father, and all the specimens from Herculaneum, Pompeii, Stabiae, Puteoli, Paestum, &c., which till then had been housed in the palace at Portici, and gave it the name of Real Museo Borbonico.
It was the point at which the coast road to Paestum diverged from the Via Popillia, rejoining it again E.