Hilarionis eremitae, in his Vita Malchi monachi captivi, in his translations of the Rule of St Pachomius (the Benedict of Egypt), and in his S.
These various orders were also organized and governed according to the system of centralized authority devised by St Pachomius (see Monasticism) and brought into vogue by Cluny in the West.
The title occurs for the first time in a letter to Epiphanius, prefixed to his Panarium (c. 375), but the Lausiac History of Palladius may be evidence that it was in common use in the 4th century as applied to Pachomius (q.v.).
The real founder of coenobian (KOLvos, common, and (31os, life) monasteries in the modern sense was Pachomius, an Egyptian of the beginning of the 4th century.
Work, and in St Benedict's time it was predominantly field work, took an even more recognized and integral place in the life than was the case under St Pachomius or St Basil, occupying notably more time than the church services.
It is a curious coincidence that the sister of each of the three great cenobitical founders, Pachomius, Basil and Benedict, was a nun and ruled a community of nuns according to an adaptation of her brother's rule for monks.
Here, at Tabennisi near Dendera, about 315-320, St Pachomius established the first Christian cenobium, or monastery properly so called.
(On St Pachomius and his monastic institute see P. Ladeuze, Cenobitisme Pakhomien (1898); Schiwietz, op. cit.
Notes 4 8, 49, 54, 59) Before his death in 346 Pachomius had established nine monasteries of men and one of women, and after his death other foundations continued to be made in all parts of Egypt, but especially in the south, and in Abyssinia.
In another respect too St Pachomius broke new ground: not only did he inaugurate Christian cenobitical life, but he also created the first " Religious Order."