The study of the action of ozone on caoutchouc has thrown new light on the complex question of the chemical structure of this substance, and discloses relationships with the sugars and other carbohydrates from certain of which levulinic acid is obtained by oxidation.
Chromic acid oxidizes it to acetic acid and ozone oxidizes it to ethyl peroxide.
- The noble metals (from silver upwards) do not combine directly with oxygen given as oxygen gas (02), although, like silver, they may absorb this gas largely when in the fused condition, and may not be proof against ozone, 03.
Chemical methods of sterilization have also been suggested, depending on the use of iodine, chlorine, bromine, ozone, potassium permanganate, copper sulphate or chloride and ()their substances.
Ammonium nitrite, NH 4 NO 2, is formed by oxidizing ammonia with ozone or hydrogen peroxide; by precipitating barium or lead nitrites with ammonium sulphate, or silver nitrite with ammonium chloride.
By 1891 he had designed and erected at the Royal Institution an apparatus which yielded liquid oxygen by the pint, and towards the end of that year he showed that both liquid oxygen and liquid ozone are strongly attracted by a magnet.
His work included investigations of osmic acid, of the ferrates, stannates, plumbates, &c., and of ozone, attempts to obtain free fluorine by the electrolysis of fused fluorides, and the discovery of anhydrous hydrofluoric acid and of a series of acides sulphazotes, the precise nature of which long remained a matter of discussion.
Now, in this case, the first definition expresses much better the whole chemical behaviour of ozone, which is that of "energetic" oxygen, while the second only includes the fact of higher vapour-density; but in applying the first definition to organic compounds and calling isobutylene "butylene with somewhat more energy" hardly anything is indicated, and all the advantages of the atomic conception - the possibility of exactly predicting how many isomers a given formula includes and how you may get them - are lost.
It is found, more especially in the case of organic compounds, that if a substance which oxidizes readily at ordinary temperature be mixed with another which is not capable of such oxidation, then both are oxidized simultaneously, the amount of oxygen used being shared equally between them; or in some cases when the substance is spontaneously oxidized an equivalent amount of oxygen is converted into ozone or hydrogen peroxide.
The oxygen uniting with the substance undergoing oxidation is generally known as "bound oxygen," whilst that which is transformed into ozone or hydrogen peroxide is usually called "active oxygen."
It is certain that the formation of hydrogen peroxide and ozone accompany the glowing, and in 1848 Schonbein tried to demonstrate that it.
The Siemens and Halske ozonizer, in form somewhat resembling the old laboratory instrument, is largely used in Germany; working with an alternating current transformed up to 650o volts, it has been found to give 280 grains or more of ozone per e.
Ozone is also emitted by a violet fluorspar from Quincie, dep. Rhone, France.
Manganese dioxide and sulphuric acid oxidize it to benzoic and o-phthalic acid; potassium chlorate and sulphuric acid breaks the ring; and ozone oxidizes it to the highly explosive white solid named ozo-benzene, C 6 H 6 O 6.
It phosphoresces in ozone, but not in air, and is nonpoisonous; from its solution in alcoholic potash acids precipitate the hydride P 12 H 6, and when heated it is transformed into the red modification.
The methods of bleaching by oxygen include all those which aim at the bleaching by exposure to the air and to sunlight (as in the case of artists' linseed-oil), or where oxygen or ozone is introduced in the form of gas or is evolved by chemicals, as manganese dioxide, potassium bichromate or potassium permanganate and sulphuric acid..
There he made the acquaintance of Thomas Andrews, whom he joined in researches on the density of ozone and the action of the electric discharge on oxygen and other gases, and by whom he was introduced to Sir W.
Peters has found that with these methods the best results are obtained when ozone is employed in addition to electrolytic oxygen.
Schonbein (loc. cit.) assumed that the ordinary oxygen molecule is decomposed into two parts which carry electrical charges of opposite kinds, the one with the positive charge being called "antozone" and the other carrying the negative charge being called "ozone," one variety being preferentially used up by the oxidizing compound or element and the other for the secondary reaction.
The production of ozone in small quantities during electrolysis, and by the so-called silent discharge, has long been known, and the Siemens induction tube has been developed for use industrially.