Oysters are more valuable than any other single product of the fisheries, and in at least twenty-five countries are an important factor in the food-supply.
The chief industry is the cultivation of oysters in four large beds in the Mare Piccolo; besides oysters, Taranto carries on a large trade in cozze, a species of large black mussel, which is packed in barrels with a special sauce.
Oysters, clams, and shrimp abound along the coast, and there are more than 500 species of mollusks in the state.
The values of the principal catches in 1902 were: red snapper, $103,398; oysters, $100,359; squeteague, $49,577, and channel bass, $39,525.1 Minerals.-The total value of the mineral products of Texas in 1890 was $1,986,679; in 1902, $6,981,532; in 1907, $19,806,458, and in 1908, $15,212,929-the valuations for the two years last named being those of the United States Geological Survey.
Hampton is an agricultural shipping point, ships fish, oysters and canned crabs, and manufactures fish oil and brick.
End of Long Island; the value of oysters alone rising from $2,050,058 to $3,780,352.
It is the largest peanut market in the world, is in a great truck-gardening region, and makes large shipments of cotton (822,930 bales in 1905), oysters, coal, fertilizers, lumber, grain, fruits, wine, vegetables, fish and live stock.
There are numerous tile-works and potteries of fine ware; and a considerable trade is carried on in anchovies and oysters caught in the Scheldt.
Oysters are reared chiefly at Marennes, which is the chief French market for them, and at Arcachon, Vannes, Olron, Auray, Cancale and Courseulles.
Oysters abound on the eastern coast, and on the shelving banks of a vast extent of the northern coast the pearl oyster is the source of a considerable industry.
The only source of maritime wealth that is now being sufficiently exploited to be regarded as an industry is the gathering of pearl-oysters from the beds off the northern and north-western coasts of the continent.
Buffalo-fish, paddle-fish, cat-fish, drum, crappie, black bass, rock bass, German carp, sturgeon, pike, perch, eels, suckers and shrimp inhabit the waters of the Mississippi and its tributaries, and oysters, shrimp, trout, Spanish mackerel, channel bass, black bass, sheepshead, mullet, croakers, pompano, pin-fish, blue-fish, flounders, crabs and terrapin are obtained from the Mississippi Sound and the rivers flowing into it.
Large numbers of shad, blue fish, weak fish (squeteague), alewives, Spanish mackerel, perch, bass, croakers (Micropogon undulatus), mullet, menhaden, oysters and clams are caught in the sounds, in the lower courses of the rivers flowing into them, or in the neighbouring waters of the sea.
The fisheries are chiefly of shad, oysters, mullet, alewives, clams, black bass, menhaden, croakers and bluefish.
Shrimps, frogs (of great commercial importance), terrapin, clams and oysters are common.
Only in very recent years have oysters, though plentiful, become of competitive importance in the national market; they are greatly favoured by state protective legislation.
They include oysters, crabs of great size, and a small mussel, found in enormous numbers.
Prawns, crayfish and oysters are also obtainable, and turtle (Chelonia mydas) are frequently captured.
Oysters are shipped from Greenwich.
Norwalk has some manufactures, including woollen goods and typewriting machines; and there is some coasting trade, oysters especially being shipped from Norwalk.
These organisms live in cockles, oysters and other lamellibranchs and they so affect the gonads of these molluscs as to castrate and sterilize their host.
The production of pearls by oysters and mussels is common knowledge, but it is only recently that the origin of pearls has been traced and admitted to be due to inflammation set up by a parasite.
In 1905 the number of persons employed in the general fisheries industry was 2212; and the value of the catch was $ 1, 54 6, 6 5 8, the largest items being: lobsters, squeteague (weakfish), $86,478; scup, $138,030; and oysters (for market), $874,232.
The products of greatest value in 5905 were: custom-made men's clothing; fruits and vegetables and oysters, canned and preserved; iron and steel; foundry and machine-shop products, including stoves and furnaces; flour and grist mill products; tinware, coppersmithing and sheet iron working; fertilizers; slaughtering and meat-packing; cars and repairs by steam railways; shirts; cotton goods; malt liquors; and cigars and cigarettes.
North of the Atlas it belongs to the European type, in the south it contains a fauna of oysters and sea-urchins belonging to the facies " africano-syrian " of Zittel.
The coast of Lower California is a favourite resort for the fur-bearing seal, r and pearl oysters find a congenial habitat in the south waters of the Gulf.
It is a business centre for the prosperous farming region by which it is surrounded, and is a shipping point for oysters and fish; among its manufactures are canned fruits and vegetables, flour, hominy, phosphates, underwear and lumber.
In such Lamellibranchs as the oysters, scallops and many others which have the edges of the mantleskirt quite free, there are numerous tentacles upon those edges.
L * An independent anatomical investigation of the Mollusca had been carried on by the remarkable Neapolitan naturalist Poli (1791), whose researches 2 were not published until after his death (1817), and were followed by the beautiful works of another Neapolitan zoologist, the illustrious Delle Chiaje.3 The embranchement or sub-kingdom Mollusca, as defined by Cuvier, included the following classes of shellfish: (1) the cuttles or poulps, under the name Cephalopoda; (2) the snails, whelks and slugs, both terrestrial and marine, under the name Gastropoda; (3) the sea-butterflies or winged-snails, under the name Pteropoda; (4) the clams, mussels and oysters, under the name Acephala; (5) the lamp-shells, under the name Brachiopoda; (6) the seasquirts or ascidians, under the name Nuda; and (7) the barnacles and sea-acorns, under the name Cirrhopoda.
Both Camden and Fuller mention the trade in barrelled oysters and candied eringo-root.
The coast is locally noted for fisheries (especially of lobsters and oysters) and some ship-building is carried on.
Ultimately they sink to the bottom and fix themselves to shells, stones or other objects, and rapidly take on the appearance of minute oysters, forming white disks 2 o in.
The appearance of these minute oysters constitutes what the fishermen call a "fall of spat."
Professor Mobius is of opinion that oysters over twenty years of age are rare, and that most of the adult Schleswig oysters are seven to ten years old.
Hence it is that so-called artificial fertilization is possible; that is to say, fertilization will take place when ripe eggs and milt are artificially pressed from the oysters and allowed to fall into a vessel of sea-water.
All that would be necessary would be to take a number of mature oysters containing white spat and lay them down in tanks till the larvae escape.
This would be merely carrying oyster culture a step farther back, and instead of collecting the newly fixed oysters, to obtain the free larvae in numbers and so insure a fall of spat independently of the uncertainty of natural conditions.
Natural beds of oysters occur on stony and shelly bottoms at depths varying from 3 to 20 fathoms. In nature the beds are liable to variations, and, although Huxley was somewhat sceptical on this point, it seems that they are easily brought into an unproductive condition by over-dredging.
Oysters do not flourish in water containing less than 3% salt; and hence they are absent from the Baltic. The chief enemies of oysters are the dog-whelk, Purpura lapillus, and the whelk-tingle, Murex erinaceus, which bore through the shells.
The states which lead in the quantity of oysters taken are Maryland, Virginia, New York, New Jersey and Connecticut; the annual value of the output in each of these is over $ I, 000,000.
The quantity of oysters taken in 1898 was 26,853,760 bushels, with a value of $12,667,405.
Oysters of excellent flavour are found in the sheltered waters of Chiloe.