Oysters abound on the eastern coast, and on the shelving banks of a vast extent of the northern coast the pearl oyster is the source of a considerable industry.
As the pearl-oyster is remarkably prolific, it is considered by experts that within a few years of their abandonment by fishing fleets the denuded banks will become as abundantly stocked as ever.
Whitstable has been famous for its oyster beds from time immemorial.
There are no valuable oyster-banks in Persian waters, and all the Persian Gulf pearls are obtained from banks on the coast of Arabia and near Bahrein.
The oyster beds, for which Loch Ryan was once noted, are not cultivated, but the fisheries (white fish and herrings) are still of some consequence.
The State Geological and Economic Survey has made a careful study of the fishes of North Carolina, of the shad fisheries, of oyster culture, and of the development of terrapin.
The sponge and oyster fisheries are also important.
Parallels may be found in "Prairie oyster," the yolk of an egg with vinegar, pepper, &c. added; or "Scotch woodcock," a savoury of buttered eggs on anchovy toast.
In 1904 a state oyster commission was created to supplant the independent control by the parishes.
They serve the trade of Lake Pontchartrain and the Florida parishes, the lumber, coal, fish, oyster and truck trade of New Orleans, and to some extent are the highway of a miscellaneous coasting trade.
Molluscs are common on the coasts, including the pearl oyster, and in the fresh-water streams and lakes.
One of the oldest of Venezuelan industries, the Margarita pearl fisheries, was prohibited in 1909 for an indefinite time because of the threatened extinction of the oyster beds.
Hornell, Ceylon Pearl Oyster Report, London, The Royal Society, part ii.
Oyster-breeding is practised on the north coast of the island, especially at Wemeldinge and Ierseke or Yerseke.
In the case of the pearl oyster this parasite is a cestode larva, but in the less valuable but no less genuine pearl produced by Mytilus, &c., the nucleus is a Trematode-larva (Jameson).
Margaritiferae) occurs in the pericardium of the Ceylon b pearl-oyster (9).
Hornell, "Parasites of the Pearl Oyster," Report on the Pearl Oyster Fisheries of the Gulf of Manaar, The Royal Society (1904), pt.
The best known and most frequent forms are the asari (Tapes philippinarum), the hamaguri (Meretrix lusoria), the baka (Mactra sulcataria), the aka-gai (Scapharca inflata), the kaki (oyster), the awabi (Haliotis japonica), the sazae (Turbo cornutus), the hora-gai (Trilonium tritonius), &c. Among the cephalopods several are of great value as articles of food, e.g.
Its former extensive trade with the West Indies has lately suffered owing to the enormous development of the North Sea ports, but it is still largely engaged in the Greenland whale and the oyster fisheries.
Carpenter (Knowledge, 1901, and Report, Pearl Oyster Fisheries, Royal Society, 1906).
The fisheries, chiefly oyster, sturgeon and shad, yield an annual product valued at about $250,000.
New York was in 1904 more extensively engaged in oyster culture than any other state, and was making more rapid progress in the cultivation of hard clams. In 1909 there were distributed from state fish hatcheries 1 531,293,721 fishes (mostly smelt, pike-perch, and winter flatfish); a large number of fish and eggs were also placed in New York waters by the United States Bureau of Fisheries.
The products of the marine fisheries decreased nearly 30% in value from 1891 to 1897, but from 1897 to 1904 they increased from $3,391,595 to $6,230,558, or 80.3%, and a large part of this increase was due to the extension of the successful oyster culture at the E.
The Dutch had long claimed the whole coast from Delaware Bay to Cape Cod, but by the treaty of Hartford (1650), negotiated between himself and the commissioners of the United Colonies of New England, Stuyvesant agreed to a boundary which on the mainland roughly determined the existing boundary between New York and Connecticut and on Long Island extended southward from the west side of Oyster Bay to the Atlantic Ocean.
There are large quantities of salmon in the lower Columbia river, in Gray's and Willapa harbours, and in Puget Sound; oyster fisheries in Gray's and Willapa harbours and in Puget Sound; cod, perch, flounders, smelt, herring and sardines in these and other salt waters.
The middle series of the Lower Tertiaries, known as the Woolwich and Reading beds, rests either on the Thanet beds or on chalk, and consists chiefly of irregular alternations of clay and sand of very various colours, the former often containing estuarine and oyster shells and the latter flint pebbles.
The history of the Kentish oyster fisheries goes back to the time of the Roman occupation, when the fame of the oyster beds off Rutupiae (Richborough) extended even to Rome.
At West New Brighton is a large dyeing establishment, there are also ship-building yards, oyster fisheries, and truck farms, and among the maufactures are linoleum, paper, white lead, linseed oil, brick, and fire-clay products.
Auray is one of the chief centres in France for oyster-breeding, and carries on boat-building and sardine-fishing.
The cockle is liable to the same suspicion as the oyster of conveying the contamination of typhoid fever where the shores are polluted, but as it is boiled before being eaten it is probably less dangerous.
In September 1650 he came to an agreement with the commissioners of the United Colonies of New England at Hartford upon the boundary between New Netherland and Connecticut, involving the sacrifice of a large amount of territory, the new boundary crossing Long Island from the west side of Oyster Bay to the Atlantic Ocean, and on the mainland north from a point west of Greenwich Bay, 4 m.
Locmariaquer has a small port, and oyster culture is carried on close to it.
That of the common oyster was described by Hoek.
Each nephridium in the oyster is a pyriform sac, which communicates by a narrow canal with the urino-genital groove placed to the front of the great adductor muscle; by a second narrow canal it communicates with the pericardium.
The genital duct opens by a pore into the urino-genital groove of the oyster (the same arrangement being repeated on each side of the body) close to but distinct from the aperture of the nephridial canal.
Previously to Hoek's discovery a brown-coloured investment of the auricles of the heart of the oyster had been supposed to represent the nephridia in a rudimentary state.
- Development of the Oyster, Ostrea edulis.
In some Lamellibranchs - for instance, the European Oyster and the Pisidium pusillum - the sexes are united in the same individual; but here, as in most hermaphrodite animals, the two sexual elements are not ripe in the same individual at the same moment.
Virginiana) and the Portuguese Oyster (0.
The Pseudolamellibranchia included the oyster, scallop and their allies which formerly constituted the order Monomyaria, having only a single large adductor muscle or in addition a very small anterior adductor.
The oyster fisheries in the vicinity are of considerable importance.
The principal industries are oyster-breeding, which is conducted on a very large scale, and fishing.
The oyster fisheries at the mouth of the Colne, for which the town has been famous for centuries, belong to the corporation, and are held on a ninetynine years' lease by the Colne Fishery Company, incorporated under an act of 1870.
It has a good harbour (in which there are three lighthouses), considerable coastwise trade, and important oyster fisheries.
Their occupations are fishing, oyster-dredging, seafaring and wild-duck catching.
Seafisheries are prosecuted, and there are oyster-beds on the coast, but the produce requires to be freed from a peculiar flavour by the purer waters of the Welsh and English coast before it is fit for food.
The oyster-beds and salmon fisheries are largely in the hands of the state, which lets them to the highest bidder.
Olympia oysters are widely known in the Pacific coast region; they are obtained chiefly from Oyster Bay, Skookum Bay, North Bay and South Bay, all near Olympia.
Oysters are by far the most valuable of the fisheries products, but, of the 400,000 acres of waters within the state suitable for oyster culture, in 1909 only about one-third was used for that purpose.
- For the present, as of old, the true Brachyura are divided into four tribes: Cyclometopa, with arched front as in the common eatable crab; Catometopa, with front bent down as in the land-crabs and the little oyster-crab; Oxyrhyncha, with sharpened beak-like front as in the various spider-crabs; Oxystomata, including the Raninida, and named not from the character of the front but from that of the buccal frame which is usually narrowed forwards.