Skin color is related to the newborn's ability to oxygenate its body and extremities and is dependent on heart rate and respirations.
This impaired ability to fully oxygenate the extremities is due to an immature circulatory system which is still in flux.
RBCs contain Hgb, a protein pigment that allows the cells to carry oxygen (oxygenate) tissues throughout the body.
An air stone should be used with the air pump to help properly oxygenate the water.
By increasing blood flow to the heart, hawthorne helps to oxygenate the blood.
Air is continually pumped into the solution to oxygenate the root system.