Soc., 1856, 7, p. 11) by the direct union of sulphur trioxide with hydrochloric acid gas, may also be obtained by distilling concentrated sulphuric acid with phosphorus oxychloride: 2H 2 SO 4 +POC1 3 =2SO 2 C1.
Disulphuryl chloride, S 2 O 5 C1 2, corresponding to pyrosulphuric acid, is obtained by the action of sulphur trioxide on sulphur dichloride, phosphorus oxychloride, sulphuryl chloride or dry sodium chloride: 650 3- + 2POC1 3 = P 2 O 5 + 3S 2 O 5 C1 2; S2C12+ 5503 = S 2 0 5 C1 2 + 550 2; SO 3 + SO 2 C1 2 = S 2 0 5 C1 2; 2NaC1 + 3SO 3 = S 2 0 5 C1 2 -1 Na 2 SO 4.
An oxychloride of composition S 2 0 3 C1 4 has been described.
It is obtained by the oxidation of xanthene (methylene diphenylene oxide) with chromic acid; by the action of phosphorus oxychloride on disodium salicylate; by heating 2 2'-dioxybenzophenone with concentrated sulphuric acid; by distilling fluoran with lime; by the oxidation of xanthydrol (R.
Phenyl salicylate, C6H4(OH) C 02C6H5, or salol, is obtained by heating salicylic acid, phenol and phosphorus oxychloride to 120-125° C.; by heating salicylic acid to 2 =0° C.; or by heating salicyl metaphosphoric acid and phenol to 140-150° C. (German Patent 85,565).
The oxychloride comes down as an amorphous white precipitate.
Another oxychloride, PbC1 2.7PbO, known as "Cassel yellow," was prepared by Vauquelin by fusing pure oxide, PbO, with one-tenth of its weight of sal ammoniac. "Turner's yellow" or "patent yellow" is another artificially prepared oxychloride, used as a pigment.
When heated in a current of carbon dioxide it forms the oxychloride CbOC1 3, and carbon monoxide.
Columbium oxychloride, CbOC1 3r is formed when carbon tetrachloride, and columbic acid are heated together at 440° C.: 3CC14+Cb205 = 2CbOC1 3 +30001 2, and also by distilling the pentachloride,in acurrent of carbon dioxide, over ignited columbic acid.
Columbium oxysulphide, CbOS 3, is obtained as a dark bronze coloured powder when the pentoxide is heated to a white heat in a current of carbon bisulphide vapour; or by gently heating the oxychloride in a current of sulphuretted hydrogen.
The crystals are very soluble in cold water, and if the salt is really pure a small proportion of water forms a clear solution; but on adding much water most of the salt is decomposed, with the formation of a precipitate of oxychloride, 2Sn(OH)Cl H20.
The same oxychloride is produced when the moist crystals, or their solution, are exposed to the air.
A solution of zinc chloride is easily produced from the metal and hydrochloric acid; it cannot be evaporated to dryness without considerable decomposition of the hydrated salt into oxychloride and hydrochloric acid, but it may be crystallized as ZnC1 2 H 2 O.
In this process all the anode metals pass into solution except iridium and other refractory metals of that group, which remain as metals, and silver, which is converted into insoluble chloride; lead and bismuth form chloride and oxychloride respectively, and these dissolve until the bath is saturated with them, and then precipitate with the silver in the tank.
Another process consists in adding water to the solution and so precipitating the bismuth as oxychloride, which is then converted into the metal.
Water decomposes it to metallic bismuth and the oxychloride, BiOC1.
With excess of water, it gives a white precipitate of the oxychloride, BiOC1.
An oxychloride of tellurium has been described, but the investigations of V.
The chloride, SmCl 2, is a brown crystalline powder which is decomposed by water with liberation of hydrogen and the formation of the oxide, Sm 2 O 3, and an oxychloride, SmOC1.
Anhydrous calcium chloride, prepared by heating the hydrate to 200° (preferably in a current of hydrochloric acid gas, which prevents the formation of any oxychloride), is very hygroscopic, and is used as a desiccating agent.
Chromic acid and its salts, the chromates and bichromates, can be detected by the violet coloration which they give on addition of hydrogen peroxide to their dilute acid solution, or by the fact that on distillation with concentrated sulphuric acid and an alkaline chloride, the red vapours of chromium oxychloride are produced.
The sesquioxide, Cr 2 0 3, occurs native, and can be artificially obtained in several different ways, e.g., by igniting the corresponding hydroxide, or chromium trioxide, or ammonium bichromate, or by passing the vapours of chromium oxychloride through a red-hot tube, or by ignition of mercurous chromate.
In the amorphous state it is a dull green, almost infusible powder, but as obtained from chromium oxychloride it is deposited in the form of dark green hexagonal crystals of specific gravity 5 2.
Oxyhalogen derivatives of chromium are known, the oxychloride, CrO 2 C1 21 resulting on heating potassium bichromate and common salt with concentrated sulphuric acid.
The oxyfluoride, Cr02F2, is obtained in a similar manner to the oxychloride by using fluorspar in place of common salt.
Potassium chlorochromate, CrO 2 Cl OK, is produced when potassium bichromate is heated with concentrated hydrochloric acid and a little water, or from chromium oxychloride and saturated potassium chloride solution, when - it separates as a red crystalline salt.
Para-nitrobenzaldehyde crystallizes in prisms melting at 107° C. and is prepared by the action of chromium oxychloride on para-nitrotoluene, or by oxidizing para-nitrocinnamic acid.
A strong solution of the chloride made into a thick paste with calcined magnesia sets in a few hours to a hard, stone-like mass, which contains an oxychloride of varying composition.
Magnesium oxychloride when heated to redness in a current of air evolves a mixture of hydrochloric acid and chlorine and leaves a residue of magnesia, a reaction which is employed in the Weldon-Pechiney and Mond processes for the manufacture of chlorine.
It combines with ammonia to form AlC13.3NH3; and forms double compounds with phosphorus pentachloride, phosphorus oxychloride, selenium and tellurium chlorides, as well as with many metallic chlorides; sodium aluminium chloride, AlC1 3 ï¿½NaC1, is used in the production of the metal.
The hexachloride, WC1 6, is obtained by heating the metal in a current of dry chlorine in the absence of oxygen or moisture, otherwise some oxychloride is formed; a sublimate of dark violet crystals appear at first, but as the hexachloride increases in quantity it collects as a very dark red liquid.
When perfectly pure, the hexachloride is stable even in moist air, but the presence of an oxychloride brings about energetic decomposition; similarly water has no action on the pure compound, but a trace of the oxychloride occasions sudden decomposition into a greenish oxide and hydrochloric acid.
The residual magnesium chloride of the ammonia-soda process is evaporated until it ceases to give off hydrochloric acid, and is then mixed with more magnesia; the magnesium oxychloride formed is broken into small pieces and heated in a current of air, when it gives up its chlorine, partly in the uncombined condition and partly in the form of hydrochloric acid, and leaves a residue of magnesia, which can again be utilized for the decomposition of more ammonium chloride (W.
They can be distinguished from the corresponding bromides and iodides by the fact that on distillation with a mixture of potassium bichromate and concentrated sulphuric acid they yield chromium oxychloride, whereas bromides and iodides by the same treatment give bromine and iodine respectively.
The oxychloride Cu 3 0 2 C1 2.4H 2 O is obtained as a pale blue precipitate when potash is added to an excess of cupric chloride.
The oxychloride Cu 4 O 3 C1 2, 4H 2 0 occurs in nature as the mineral atacamite.
Wurtz's first published paper was on hypophosphorous acid (1842), and the continuation of his work on the acids of phosphorus (1845) resulted in the discovery of sulphophosphoric acid and phosphorus oxychloride, as well as of copper hydride.
It combines with water, forming the hydrates SbC1 5 -1-1 2 0 and SbC1 3.4H 2 O; it also combines with phosphorus oxychloride, hydrocyanic acid, and cyanogen chloride.
On heating, it is converted into the oxychloride Sb405C12 (Sb 2 O 3 =SbOC1).
Antimony oxychloride, SbOC1 3, is formed by addition o f the calculated quantity of water to ice-cooled antimony pentachloride, SbC1 5 -}-H 2 0=SbOC1 3 +2HC1.
Pyrocatechin readily condenses to form heterocyclic compounds; cyclic esters are formed by phosphorus trichloride and oxychloride, carbonyl chloride, sulphuryl chloride, &c.; whilst ortho-phenylenediamine, o-aminophenol, and o-aminothiophenol give phenazine, phenoxazine and thiodiphenylamine.
Phosphoryl trichloride or phosphorus oxychloride, POC1 3, corresponding to phosphoric acid, (HO) 3 P0, discovered in 1847 by Wurtz, may be produced by the action of many substances containing hydroxy groups on the pentachloride; from the trichloride and potassium chlorate; by leaving phosphorus pentoxide in contact with hydrochloric acid: 2P 2 0 5 +3HC1= POC13+3HP03; or by heating the pentachloride and pentoxide under pressure: 3PC15+ P205= 5POC1 3.
With phosphorus oxychloride at 520° C. gallic acid yields tannic acid, and with concentrated sulphuric acid at 100°, rufigallic acid, C14H808, an anthracene derivative.
Le Blanc, Ber., 1888, 21, p. 2299), or by treatment with phosphorus oxychloride followed by the reduction of the resulting dichlorisoquinoline with hydriodic acid (S.
Gabriel, Ber., 1886, 9, 1655, 2355): '/C It /CH = C(OH) CH= C Cl /CH=CH C 6 114 I or C 6 H4< - C 6 H4< --> C6H4< CO-NH C(OH): N CH= It is also formed from isobenzalphthalide by the action of ammonia, followedby phosphorus oxychloride and reduction of the chlorinated product (S.
With a little water it forms arsenic oxychloride, AsOCl, and with excess of water it is completely decomposed into hydrochloric acid and white arsenic. It combines directly with ammonia to form a solid compound variously given as AsCl3.3NH3 or 2AsCl3.7NH3, or AsCl3.4NH3 Arsenic trifluoride, AsF3, is prepared by distilling white arsenic with fluorspar and sulphuric acid, or by heating arsenic tribromide with ammonium fluoride; it is a colourless liquid of specific gravity 2.73, boiling at 63° C; it fumes in air, and in contact with the skin produces painful wounds.
Chromium oxychloride reacts violently on phenol, producing hydroquinone ether, O(C 6 H 4 OH)2; chromic acid gives phenoquinone, and potassium permanganate gives paradiphenol, oxalic acid, and some salicylic acid (R.