Forced vacation... isn't that an oxy-moron?
Compounds containing an oxy in addition to an aldehydic or ketonic group) undergo both condensation and oxidation when treated with phenylhydrazine, forming compounds known as osozones; these are of great importance in characterizing the sugars (q.v.).
Intermolecular transformations-migrations of substituent groups from one carbon atom to anotherare of fairly common occurrence among oxy compounds at elevated temperatures.
We may here mention the synthesis of oxyuvitic ester (5-methyl-4-oxy-I-3-benzene dicarboxylic ester) by the condensation of two molecules of sodium acetoacetic ester with one of chloroform (Ann., 1883, 222, p. 249).
Of other syntheses of true benzene derivatives, mention may be made of the formation of orcinol or [3 s]-dioxytoluene from dehydracetic acid; and the formation of esters of oxytoluic acid (5-methyl3-oxy-benzoic acid), C6 H3 CH3.
Aminoand oxy-benzenes, aminophenols, quinones, and oxycarboxylic acids.
If s-naphthylamine and 0-naphthol be reduced, tetrahydro products are obtained in which the aminoor oxy-bearing half of the molecule becomes aliphatic in character.
Amino derivatives similarly result from thio-ureas and a-haloid ketones; the oxy derivatives from a-sulphocyanoketones by the action of caustic alkali; and the carboxylic acids from chloro-aceto-acetic ester, &c. and thioamides.
Sugar of lead, but it is now restricted to certain oxyaldehydes and oxy-ketones, which occur in the vegetable and animal kingdoms either free or in combination as glucosides (q.v.) and to artificial preparations of similar chemical structure.
He prepared the cyanhydrins of glucose and fructose, hydrolysed them to the corresponding oxy-acids, from which the hydroxy groups were split out by reduction; it was found that glucose yielded normal heptylic acid and fructose methylbutylacetic acid; hence glucose is an aldehyde alcohol, CH 2 OH (CH OH) 4 CHO, whilst fructose is a ketone alcohol CH 2 OH (CH OH) 3 CO.
Ruff effects the same change by oxidizing the sugar to the oxy-acid, ' See Fermentation; and for the relation of this property to structure see Stereoisomerism.
The oxide is fusible only in the oxy-hydrogen flame.
Oxy-acids are carboxylic acids which also contain a hydroxyl group; similarly we may have aldehyde-acids, ketone-acids, &c. Since the more important acids are treated under their own headings, or under substances closely allied to them, we shall here confine ourselves to general relations.
It functions chiefly as an acidic oxide, 'being less basic than aluminium oxide, and forming no stable oxy-salts.
Oxy-salts of gold are almost unknown, but the sulphite and thiosulphate form double salts.
When acetylene was first introduced on a commercial scale attempts were made to utilize its great heat of combustion by using it in conjunction with oxygen in the oxy hydrogen blowpipe.
The introduction of acetylene dissolved under pressure in acetone contained in cylinders filled with porous material drew attention again to this use of the gas, and by using a special construction of blowpipe an oxy-acetylene flame is produced, which is far hotter than the oxy-hydrogen flame, and at the same time is so reducing in its character that it can be used for the direct autogenous welding of steel and many minor metallurgical processes.
Various sulphonic acids of anthraquinone are known, as well as oxy-derivatives, for the preparation and properties of which see Alizarin.
For the oxy-cinnamic acids see Coumarin.
It combines with aldehydes and ketones to form the nitriles of oxy-acids, for example, CH 3 CHO+HCN=CH 3 CH(OH)(CN).
Oxygen may be prepared by heating mercuric oxide; by strongly heating manganese dioxide and many other peroxides; by heating the oxides of precious metals; and by heating many oxy-acids and oxy-salts to high temperatures, for example, nitric acid, sulphuric acid, nitre, lead nitrate, zinc sulphate, potassium chlorate, &c. Potassium chlorate is generally used and the reaction is accelerated and carried out at a lower temperature by previously mixing the salt with about one-third of its weight of manganese dioxide, which acts as a catalytic agent.
The product on acidification gives a compound C15H1205 ï¿½ H20 which is probably an oxy-methoxy-benzoyl benzoic acid.
When heated with oxy-acids it dissolves, with evolution of oxygen, and with hydrochloric acid it evolves chlorine.
The halogen of lower atomic weight can displace one of higher atomic weight from its hydrogen compound, or from the salt derived from such hydrogen compound, while, on the other hand, the halogen of higher atomic weight can displace that of lower atomic weight, from the halogen oxy-acids and their salts; thus iodine will liberate chlorine from potassium chlorate and also from perchloric acid.
Several oxy-acids of chlorine are known, namely, hypochlorous acid, HC10, chlorous acid, HC10 2 (in the form of its salts), chloric acid, HC10 3, and perchloric acid, HC10 4.
By the condensation of ortho-aminophenols with phosgene or thiophosgene, oxy and thio-derivatives are obtained, the (OH) and (SH) groups being situated in the t t position, and these compounds on treatment with amines yield amino derivatives.
Fischer also obtained it from 8-oxy-2.6-dichlorpurin (Berichte, 1898, 31, p. 104).
No oxides of bromine have as yet been isolated, but three oxy-acids are known, namely hypobromous acid, HBrO, bromous acid, HBr02, and bromic acid, HBrO 3.
The Skraup reaction is a perfectly general one for primary amino-compounds; the halogen-, nitroand oxy-anilines (aminophenols) react similarly, as do also the toluidines, naphthylamines, aminoanthracene, metaand para-phenylene diamines, and orthoand 7-aminoquinoline.
The oxy derivatives of the quinoline homologues are best obtained from the aniline derivatives of (3-ketonic acids.
At iio° C. aniline and acetoacetic ester condense to form anilido-acetoacetic ester, CH 3 C0 CH 2 C0 NH C 6 H 51 which is converted by concentrated acids into a-oxy-y-methylquinoline (L.
On the other hand, at about 240° C., the amine and ester react to form 13-anilidocrotonic ester, CH 3 C(NHC 6 H 5): CH COOC2H5r which yields y-oxy-a-methylquinoline (M.
Quin i c acid, C 6 H 7 (OH) 4 CO 2 H (tetra -oxy.cyclohexane carboxylic acid), is found in coffee beans and in quinia bark.
The A 3 acid is Sodium obtained by eliminating the elements of amalgam water from 4-oxy-cyclo-hexane-i-carb- p1.4 Dihydro oxylic acid (W.
Many salts of oxy-acids of vanadium are known, but of the more common oxy-acids, metavanadic acid, HV03, and pyrovanadic acid, H 4 V 2 0 7, alone appear to have been isolated.
They are intended for use at the extreme temperatures obtainable in steel furnaces, or for the melting of platinum before the oxy-hydrogen blowpipe.