The hexammine salts are formed by the oxidizing action of air on dilute ammoniacal solutions of cobaltous salts, especially in presence of a large excess of ammonium chloride.
Acid oxidizing agents, however, completely destroy them.
The mono-amino derivatives or eurhodines are obtained when the arylmonamines are condensed with orthoamino zo compounds; by condensing quinone dichlorimide or para-nitrosodimethyl aniline with monamines containing a free para position, or by oxidizing ortho-hydroxydiaminodiphenylamines (R.
Cadmium salts can be recognized by the brown incrustation which is formed when they are heated on charcoal in the oxidizing flame of the blowpipe; and also by the yellow precipitate formed when sulphuretted hydrogen is passed though their acidified solutions.
Molybdenum trioxide, Mo03, is prepared by oxidizing the metal or the sulphide by heating them in air, or with nitric acid.
Oxidizing agents rapidly attack sulphuretted hydrogen, the primary products of the reaction being water and sulphur.
It combines directly with many elements and compounds and frequently acts as energetic oxidizing agent.
Dessaignes, who obtained it by oxidizing malic acid (Ann., 1858, 107, p. 251).
It fuses easily in the electric arc. It oxidizes superficially when heated, but fairly rapidly when ignited in an oxidizing blowpipe flame, forming a black smoke of the oxide.
The peroxide, Ru04, is formed when a solution of potassium ruthenate is decomposed by chlorine, or by oxidizing ruthenium compounds with potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid, or with potassium permanganate and sulphuric acid.
Ruthenium sulphate, Ru(S04)2, as obtained by oxidizing the sulphide, is an orange-yellow mass which is deliquescent and dissolves in water, the solution possessing a strongly acid reaction.
For example: nitric acid and sulphuric acid readily react with benzene and its homologues with the production of nitro derivatives and sulphonic acids, while in the aliphatic series these acids exert no substituting action (in the case of the olefines, the latter acid forms an addition product); another distinction is that the benzene complex is more stable towards oxidizing agents.
Benzene and its homologues, carboxylic acids, and nitro compounds are much more stable towards oxidizing agents than.
In general, the rupture occurs between a keto group (CO) and a keto-chloride group (CC1 2), into which two adjacent carbon atoms of the ring are converted by the oxidizing and substituting action of chlorine.
The stronger argument against the ethylenoid linkages demanded by Kekule's formula is provided by the remarkable stability towards oxidizing and reducing agents which characterizes all benzenoid compounds.
To mix the substance with an oxidizing agent - mercuric oxide, lead dioxide, and afterwards copper oxide - and absorb the carbon dioxide in potash solution.
Heat the substance with a bead of microcosmic salt or borax on a platinum wire in the oxidizing flame.
The operation is repeated with the thread in the oxidizing flame.
Carbon and hydrogen are generally estimated by the combustion process, which consists in oxidizing the substance and absorbing the products of combustion in suitable apparatus.
The oxidizing agent in commonest use is copper oxide, which must be freshly ignited before use on account of its hygroscopic nature.
In 1855 C. Brunner described a method for oxidizing the carbon to carbon dioxide, which could be estimated by the usual methods, by heating the substance with potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid.
19, p. 1910) determines sulphur and the halogens by oxidizing the substance in a current of oxygen and nitrous fumes, conducting the vapours over platinum foil, and absorbing the vapours in suitable receivers.
It is an energetic oxidizing agent.
Sodium nitrite, the most commonly used salt of the acid, is generally obtained by heating the nitrate with metallic lead; by heating sodium nitrate with sulphur and sodium hydroxide, the product then being fractionally crystallized;(Read, Holliday & Sons): 3NaNO 3 +S+2NaOH = Na2S04+3NaN02+H20; by oxidizing atmospheric nitrogen in an electric arc, keeping the gases above 300° C., until absorption in alkaline hydroxide solution is effected (German Pat.
In aqueous solution the free acid acts as an oxidizing agent, bleaching indigo and liberating iodine from potassium iodide, or it may act as a reducing agent since it readily tends to pass into nitric acid: consequently it discharges the colour of acid solutions of permanganates and chromates.
Constant cells may be divided into two groups, according as their action is chemical (as in the bichromate cell, where the hydrogen is converted into water by an oxidizing agent placed in a porous pot round the carbon plate) or electrochemical (as in Daniell's cell, where a copper plate is surrounded by a solution of copper sulphate, and the hydrogen, instead of being liberated, replaces copper, which is deposited on the plate from the solution).
The dressed ore is introduced through a "hopper" at the top, and exposed to a moderate oxidizing flame until a certain proportion of ore is oxidized, openings at the side enabling the workmen to stir up the ore so as to constantly renew the surface exposed to the air.
In Carinthia the oxidizing process from the first is pushed on so far that metallic lead begins to show, and the oxygen introduced predominates over the sulphur left.
Ores are smelted raw if the fall of matte (metallic sulphide) does not exceed 5%; otherwise they are subjected to a preliminary oxidizing roast to expel the sulphur, unless they run too high in silver, say 100 oz.
A stick of green wood is forced into it, and the vapours and gases set free expose new surfaces to the air, which at this temperature has only a mildly oxidizing effect.
Sodium aurothiosulphate, 3Na 2 S 2 O 3 Au2S203.4H20, forms colourless needles; it is obtained in the direct action of sodium thiosulphateongoldinthe presence of an oxidizing agent, or by the addition of a dilute solution of auric chloride to a sodium thiosulphate solution.
By continuing the treatment of these in the ordinary way of refining, poling and granulating, all the foreign matters other than gold, copper and silver are removed, and, by exposing the granulated metal to a high oxidizing heat for a considerable time the copper may be completely oxidized while the precious metals are unaltered.
Scheele prepared it by oxidizing sugar with nitric acid, and showed it to be identical with the acetosellic acid obtained from wood-sorrel.
Hydrogen and oxygen may also be produced electrolytically as gases, and their respective reducing and oxidizing powers at the moment of deposition on the electrode are frequently used in the laboratory, and to some extent industrially, chiefly in the field of organic chemistry.
The ozone so prepared has numerous uses, as, for example, in bleaching oils, waxes, fabrics, &c., sterilizing drinking-water, maturing wines, cleansing foul beer-casks, oxidizing oil, and in the manufacture of vanillin.
Titanium oxide when fused with microcosmic salt in the oxidizing flame yields a bead which is yellowish in the heat but colourless after cooling.
Oxidizing agents convert anthracene into anthraquinone; the production of this substance by oxidizing anthracene in glacial acetic acid solution, with chromic acid, is the usual method employed for the estimation of anthracene.
Zinc oxide, ZnO, is maufactured for paint by two processes - directly from the ore mixed with coal by volatilization on a grate, as in the Wetherill oxide process, and by oxidizing the vapour given off by a boiling bath of zinc metal.
It is an energetic oxidizing agent, and on this property its most important applications depend.
The only other method of refining is by oxidizing and settling.
Ruff effects the same change by oxidizing the sugar to the oxy-acid, ' See Fermentation; and for the relation of this property to structure see Stereoisomerism.