Other metals, except the silver and gold, also oxidize, and are carried by the melted litharge into the cupel.
Their alkyl derivatives readily oxidize to pyrazine carboxylic acids.
Potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid oxidize phenol, salicylic acid (o-oxybenzoic acid), and gallic acid ([2.3.4] trioxybenzoic acid) to tri chlorpyroracemic acid (isotrichlorglyceric acid), CC13 C(OH)2 C02H, a substance also obtained from trichloracetonitrile, CC1 3 CO CN, by hydrolysis.
In small works the cupellation is finished in one furnace, and the resulting low-grade silver fined in a plumbago crucible, either by overheating in the presence of air, or by the addition of silver sulphate to the melted silver, when air or sulphur trioxide and oxygen oxidize the impurities.
V.) are undoubtedly the result of excessive ingestion of food material containing more neutral fats than the normal tissues can oxidize, or these, as a result of defective removal owing to enfeebled oxidative capacities on the part of the tissues, become stored up in the tissues.
Manganese dioxide and sulphuric acid oxidize it to benzoic and o-phthalic acid; potassium chlorate and sulphuric acid breaks the ring; and ozone oxidizes it to the highly explosive white solid named ozo-benzene, C 6 H 6 O 6.
Manganese dioxide and dilute sulphuric acid oxidize it to quinone.
The second process is one patented by Fritz Ullmann of Geneva, who utilizes chromic acid to oxidize the phosphuretted and sulphuretted hydrogen and absorb the ammonia, and this method of purification has proved the most successful in practice, the chromic acid being absorbed by kieselgiihr and the material sold under the name of "Heratol."
It is by forming calcium sulphide that sulphur is removed in the manufacture of pig iron in the iron blast furnace, in the crucible of which, as in the electric furnaces, the conditions are strongly deoxidizing But in the Bessemer and open-hearth processes this means of removing sulphur cannot be used, because in each of them there is always enough oxygen in the atmosphere to re-oxidize any calcium as fast as it is deoxidized.
Potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid oxidize it to carbon dioxide and acetic acid, while alkaline potassium permanganate oxidizes it to carbon dioxide.
(c X 600;) al X 1500, above.) (From Fischer's Vorlesungen uber Bakterien.) into the higher plants as sulphates, built up into proteids, decomposed by putrefactive bacteria and yielding SH 2 which the sulphur bacteria oxidize; the resulting sulphur is then again oxidized to SO 3 and again combined with calcium to gypsum, the cycle being thus complete.
The idea that this film of bacteria oxidizes the alcohol beneath by merely condensing atmospheric oxygen in its interstices, after the manner of spongy platinum, has long been given up; but the explanation of the action as an incomplete combustion, depending on the peculiar respiration of these organisms - much as in the case of nitrifying and sulphur bacteria - is not clear, though the discovery that the acetic bacteria will not only oxidize alcohol to acetic acid, but further oxidize the latter to CO 2 and 01-1 2 supports the view that the alcohol is absorbed by the organism and employed as its respirable substance.
The ore is treated as described in the cyanide method until the copper precipitated by the aluminium foil has been washed and dissolved in 5 cc. of nitric acid; then 0.25 gramme of potassium chlorate is added, and the solution boiled nearly dry to oxidize any arsenic present to arsenic acid.
Pure Oxalic Acid May Also Be Used, Which, In The Presence Of Sulphuric Acid, Is Oxidized By The Standard Solution According To The Reaction: 5(H2C2042H20) 3H 2 So 4 2Kmn04 =10002 2Mns04 K2S04 18H20 The Reaction In Case Of Ferrous Sulphate Is: 10Fes04 2Kmn04 8H2S04 = 5Fe2(S04)3 K2S04 2Mns04 8H20; That Is, The Same Amount Of Potassium Permanganate Is Required To Oxidize 5 Molecules Of Oxalic Acid That Is Necessary To Oxidize I O Molecules Of Iron In The Form Of Ferrous Sulphate To Ferric Sulphate, Or 63 Parts By Weight Of Oxalic Acid Equal 56 Parts By Weight Of Metallic Iron.
Beryllium and magnesium are permanent in dry air; calcium, strontium and barium, however, oxidize rapidly on exposure.
It should therefore be kept a year or more in heaps in some waste corner and turned over once or twice so that the air can gain access to it and oxidize the poisonous ingredients in it.
Its chief uses are in glass-making to promote fluidity, in metallurgy to oxidize impurities, as a constituent of gunpowder and in pyrotechny; it is also used in the manufacture of nitric acid.
The latter begin to oxidize before the ley has come up to the traditional strength of specific gravity 1.333 when cold, while nickel is not attacked so long as the percentage of real KHO is short of 60.
Aluminium sulphate, known commercially as "concentrated alum" or "sulphate of alumina," is manufactured from kaolin or china clay, which, after roasting (in order to oxidize any iron present), is heated with sulphuric acid, the clear solution run off, and evaporated.
Nitric acid and chromic acid oxidize them in such a manner that they yield the same products as the alcohols from which they are derived.
When the latter have oxidized ammonia to nitrite, however, the former step in and oxidize it still further to nitric acid.
If the SH 2 runs short they oxidize the sulphur again to sulphuric acid, which combines with any calcium carbonate present and forms sulphate again.
In the deeper parts of this zone the bacteria absorb the SH 2, and, as they rise, oxidize it and store up the sulphur; then ascending into planes more highly oxygenated, oxidize the sulphur to SO 3.
They oxidize very rapidly on exposure, in many cases being spontaneously inflammable.
Sulphur trioxide and sulphuric acid oxidize phosphorus oxide, giving the pentoxide and sulphur dioxide, whilst sulphur chloride, S 2 C1 2, gives phosphoryl and thiophosphoryl chlorides, free sulphur and sulphur dioxide.
Some oxidize rapidly on exposure to air, passing into resinous substances.
Potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid oxidize it to carbon dioxide and water; and potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid to chloranil.
Nascent hydrogen reduces it to hydroxylamine (q.v.), whilst solutions of hypochlorites oxidize it to nitric acid.
Ores of Iron.-Even though the earth seems to be a huge iron meteor with but a thin covering of rocks, the exasperating proneness of iron to oxidize explains readily why this metal is only rarely found native, except in the form of meteorites.
Later, when most of it has been oxidized, the carbon begins to oxidize to carbonic oxide, which in turn burns.
Bertrand and Thiel oxidize the carbon of molten cast iron by pouring it into a bath of molten iron which has first been oxygenated, i.e.
When the lead melts and begins to oxidize, the lead oxide, or so-called litharge, combines with or dissolves the non-metallic and readily oxidizable constituents of the ore, while the gold and silver alloy with the lead.
8 a to oxidize when sparked with oxygen, and on examining it spectroscopically he saw that the spectrum was not that of argon, but was characterized by a bright yellow line near to, but not identical with, the D line of sodium.
There are several ways to clarify water.