To see how this law follows from Dalton's theory let us consider his diagrams for the molecules of water, ethylene and the oxides of carbon.
Similarly, if we know by experiment the composition of water and of ammonia, we can predict the probable composition of the oxides of nitrogen.
Dumas' on the composition of the two oxides of carbon.
From their work it follows that the ratio of the weights of oxygen combined with unit weight of carbon in the two oxides is 1.99995, or with somewhat different data, 1.9996.
Three characteristic oxides of cobalt are known, the monoxide, CoO, the sesquioxide, C0203, and tricobalt tetroxide, C0304; besides these there are probably oxides of composition Co02, Co 8 0 9, C0607 and C0405.
Tricobalt tetroxide, C0304, is produced when the other oxides, or the nitrate, are heated in air.
The gas contains a certain amount of hydrogen and oxides of carbon, also traces of nitrogen.
Thorianite, however, contains no silica, and until it is shown that metallic oxides behave in the same way this explanation must be accepted with reserve.
It reduces many metallic oxides, such as lead monoxide and cupric oxide, and decomposes water at a red heat.
It also possesses the power of combining with most metallic oxides at high temperatures, forming borates, which in many cases show characteristic colours.
The ore generally occurs in the form of oxides, manganite and pyrolusite, and contains a high percentage of sesquioxide of manganese.
Gothite occurs with other iron oxides, especially limonite and hematite, and when found in sufficient quantity is mined with these as an ore of iron.
Of yttria, Y203, and 42.75 of the oxides of erbium, cerium, didymium, lanthanum, iron, beryllium, calcium, magnesium and sodium.
Wehnelt discovered that the same effect could be produced by using instead of a carbon filament a platinum wire covered with the oxides of calcium or barium, which when incandescent have the property of copiously emitting negative ions.
Precipitate, red, and all oxides of mercury.
Berthollet's theoretical views regarding the composition of the metallic oxides, and he also showed Berthollet's "zoonic acid" to be impure acetic acid (1802); but Berthollet (q.v.), so far from resenting these corrections from a younger man, invited him to become a member of the Societe d'Arcueil.
Molybdenum combines with oxygen to form many oxides, the most important of which are: the monoxide, MoO.n (H 2 O), the sesquioxide, M0203, the dioxide, MoO 2, and the trioxide, MoO 3.
The molybdates are also capable of combining with other oxides (such as phosphorus and arsenic pentoxides) yielding very complex salts.
Davy showed that they were oxides of various metals.
The metals comprising this group are never found in the uncombined condition, but occur most often in the form of carbonates and sulphates; they form oxides of the type RO, and in the case of calcium, strontium and barium, of the type R02.
The oxides of type RO are soluble in water, the solution possessing a strongly alkaline reaction and rapidly absorbing carbon dioxide on exposure; they are basic in character and dissolve readily in acids with the formation of the corresponding salts.
Two oxides of germanium are known, the dioxide, GeO2, being obtained by roasting the sulphide and treatment with nitric acid.
Four oxides of sulphur a.re known, namely sulphur dioxide, S02, sulphur trioxide, S03, sulphur sesquioxide, S203, and persulphuric anhydride, S 2 0 7.
The sulphites are prepared by the action of sulphur dioxide on the oxides, hydroxides or carbonates of the metals, or by processes of precipitation.
He points out that the available oxygen in the oxides may react either as SO 2 + H 2 O ?-- O = H 2 SO 4 or as 2S0 2 -IH20 + 0 = H 2 S 2 0 6; and that in the case of ferric oxide 96% of the theoretical yield of dithionate is obtained, whilst manganese oxide only gives about 75%.
In a scientific definition the compounds of fatty acids with basic metallic oxides, lime, magnesia, lead oxide, &c., should also be included under soap; but, as these compounds are insoluble in water, while the very essence of a soap in its industrial relations is solubility, it is better to speak of the insoluble compounds as " plasters, " limiting the name " soap " as the compounds of fatty acids with soda and potash.
Several oxides of ruthenium have been described, the definite existence of some of which appears to be doubtful.
As an example of the complexity of this system we may note the five oxides of nitrogen, which were symbolized as the first three representing the gaseous oxides, and the last two the liquid oxides.
For example, at first he represented ferrous and ferric oxides by the formulae Fe02, Fe03, and by the analogy of zinc and other basic oxides he regarded these substances as constituted similarly to Fe02, and the acidic oxides alumina and chromium oxide as similar to FeO 3.
The basic oxides must have the general formula MO.
For example, compounds of oxygen are oxides, of chlorine, chlorides, and so on.
For example take the oxides of nitrogen, N 2 0, NO, N 2 0 3, NO 2, N 2 0 5; these are known respectively as nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen trioxide, nitrogen peroxide and nitrogen pentoxide.
But not only is the combining power or valency (atomicity) of the elements different, it is also observed that one element may combine with another in several proportions, or that its valency may vary; for example, phosphorus forms two chlorides represented by the formulae PC1 3 and PC1 51 nitrogen the series of oxides represented by the formulae N 2 0, NO, (N203), N 2 O 4, N205, molybdenum forms the chlorides MoC1 2, MoC1 3, MoC1 4, MoC1 5, MoCls(?), and tungsten the chlorides WC1 2, WCl 4, WC1 5, WC16.
The phlogistic theory, which pervaded the chemical doctrine of this period, gave rise to continued study of the products of calcination and combustion; it thus happened that the knowledge of oxides and oxidation products was considerably developed.
In the following year he discovered rhodium; and at about the same time Smithson Tennant added two more to the list - iridium and osmium; the former was so named from the changing tints of its oxides (ipcs, rainbow), and the latter from the odour of its oxide (ovµA, smell).
In the same year Berzelius discovered selenium in a deposit from sulphuric acid chambers, his masterly investigation including a study of the hydride, oxides and other compounds.
In the separation of the constituents of the complex mixture of oxides obtained from the " rare earth " minerals, the methods generally forced upon chemists are those of fractional precipitation or crystallization; the striking resemblances of the compounds of these elements rarely admitting of a complete separation by simple precipitation and filtration.
Formerly the sparkand absorption-spectra were the sole methods available; a third method was introduced by Crookes, who submitted the oxides, or preferably the basic sulphates, to the action of a negative electric discharge in vacuo, and investigated the phosphorescence induced spectroscopically.
Mosander's erbia has been shown to contain various other oxides - thulia, holmia, &c. - but this has not yet been perfectly worked out.
Lavoisier, to whom chemistry was primarily the chemistry of oxygen compounds, having developed the radical theory initiated by Guyton de Morveau, formulated the hypothesis that vegetable and animal substances were oxides of radicals composed of carbon and hydrogen; moreover, since simple radicals (the elements) can form more than one oxide, he attributed the same character to his hydrocarbon radicals: he considered, for instance, sugar to be a neutral oxide and oxalic acid a higher oxide of a certain radical, for, when oxidized by nitric acid, sugar yields oxalic acid.
Berzelius, in 1813 and 1814, by improved methods of analysis, established that the Daltonian laws of combination held in both the inorganic and organic kingdoms; and he adopted the view of Lavoisier that organic compounds were oxides of compound radicals, and therefore necessarily contained at least three elements - carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
This view was accepted in 1817 by Leopold Gmelin, who, in his Handbuch der Chemie, regarded inorganic compounds as being of binary composition (the simplest being oxides, both acid and basic, which by combination form salts also of binary form), and organic compounds as ternary, i.e.
These compounds may be regarded as oxides in just the same way as the alcohols are regarded as hydroxides.
Selenophene gives the series: selenazole, diazoselenide and piaselenole, corresponding to oxazole, diazo-oxides and furazane.
Oxygen, recognized by its power of igniting a glowing splinter, results from the decomposition of oxides of the noble metals, peroxides, chlorates, nitrates and other highly oxygenized salts.
Nitrogen oxides, recognized by their odour and brown-red colour, result from the decomposition of nitrates.
The space a must allow for the inclusion of a copper spiral if the substance contains nitrogen, and a silver spiral if halogens be present, for otherwise nitrogen oxides and the halogens may be condensed in the absorption apparatus; b contains copper oxide; c is a space for the insertion of a porcelain or platinum boat containing a weighed quantity of the substance; d is a copper spiral.
As a general rule the modification stable at higher temperatures possesses a lower density; but this is by no means always the case, since the converse is true for antimonious and arsenious oxides, silver iodide and some other substances.
The insufficiency of this argument, however, is shown by the data for arsenious and antimonious oxides, and also for the polymorphs of calcium carbonate, the more symmetrical polymorphs having a lower density.
Deep residual clay soils derived from underlying limestones, and coloured red or black according to the predominance of oxides of iron or vegetable detritus, characterize the plains.
To form (1) oxides and nitric acids, (2) ammonia, (3) readily decomposable nitrides, (4) cyanides, (5) cyanamides.
Mehner patented heating the oxides of silicon, boron or magnesium with coal or coke in an electric furnace, and then passing in nitrogen, which forms, with the metal liberated by the action of the carbon, a readily decomposable nitride.
Nitrogen forms five oxides, viz.
The first four oxides are gases, the fifth is a solid.
It combines directly with lithium, calcium and magnesium when heated, whilst nitrides of the rare earth metals are also produced when their oxides are mixed with magnesium and heated in a current of nitrogen (C. Matignon, Comptes rendus, 1900, 131, p. 837).
It converts many metallic oxides into mixtures of nitrates and nitrites, and attacks many metals, forming nitrates and being itself reduced to nitric oxide.