On the much agitated question about the employment of horses or oxen in labour, the most important arguments are distinctly stated.
The Somali have also large herds of cattle - oxen, sheep and goats.
Cakes were laid on the altar of Zeus Polieus and oxen driven round; the one which touched the cakes was the victim.
Oxen, usually yoked in teams of eight, were used for ploughing.
In the case of oxen the alternate host of the parasite is a special tick (Smith and Kilborne).
Oxen and cows are of secondary importance and the climate is unsuitable for sheep; horses of a small breed are used to some extent.
In Kano itself is a great market for livestock: camels, horses, oxen, asses and goats being on sale.
Musk-oxen are gregarious in habit, assembling in herds of twenty or thirty head, or sometimes eighty or a hundred, in which there are seldom more than two or three full-grown males.
Rice, dried fish, beans, pepper and oxen are the chief elements in the export trade of the country, which is in the hands of Chinese.
The chief exports are sheep and oxen, most of which are raised in Morocco and Tunisia, and horses; animal products, such as wool and skins; wine, cereals (rye, barley, oats), vegetables, fruits (chiefly figs and grapes for the table) and seeds, esparto grass, oils and vegetable extracts (chiefly olive oil), iron ore, zinc, natural phosphates, timber, cork, crin vegetal and tobacco.
CARROCCIO, a war chariot drawn by oxen, used by the medieval republics of Italy.
It thus formed part of the common farm and was cultivated by the villeins and their oxen under the superintendence of a bailiff.
Men and oxen exchange work; but if we consider necessary work only, the oxen will be seen to have greatly the advantage, their farm is so much the larger.
The true Baggara tribesmen employ oxen as saddle and pack animals, carry no shield, and though many possess firearms the customary weapons are lance and sword.
The autumnal subsidence of the river was followed by shallow ploughing performed by oxen yoked to clumsy wooden ploughs, the clods being afterwards levelled with wooden hoes by hand.
Job, besides immense possessions in flocks and herds, had 500 yoke of oxen, which he employed in ploughing, and a " very great husbandry."
The three-year-old wethers and older oxen that used to be common in the fat stock markets are now rarely seen, excepting perhaps in the case of mountain breeds of sheep and Highland cattle.
The young shoots are also given to oxen in the long winters of those northern latitudes, when other green fodder is hard to obtain.
Cato advised the agriculturist to sell his old oxen and his old slaves, as well as his sick ones; and sick slaves were exposed in the island of Aesculapius in the Tiber; by a decree of Claudius slaves so exposed, if they recovered, could not be reclaimed by their masters.
Dingiswayo also encouraged trade and opened relations with the Portuguese at Delagoa Bay, bartering ivory and oxen for brass and beads.
Oxen are used for ploughing the higher lands with light soil, and the heavier and stronger buffaloes for ploughing wet tracts and marshy lands.
The Bovidae comprise a great number of genera and species, and include the oxen, sheep, goats, antelopes and certain other kinds which come under neither of these designations.
Lavrushka was saying something about loaded wagons, biscuits, and oxen he had seen when he had gone out for provisions.
Oxen were much prized, and breeding was carried on with a careful eye to selection.
The single exception is provided by the slowly-maturing Highland breed of cattle, for which classes were allotted to (I) steers not exceeding three years old, (2) steers or oxen above three years old (with no maximum limit), and (3) heifers not exceeding four years old.
The Swedish expedition to Greenland in 1899 found musk-oxen in herds of varying size - some contained only a few individuals, and in one case there were sixty-seven.
Oxen, 56,540 cows, 23,765 bulls and 19,643 breeding cattle, as well as a large number of carcases.
It is, indeed, recorded by Diodorus that Dionysius built the north wall from Euryelus to the Hexapylon in twenty days for a length of 2 3 - 4 m., employing 60,000 peasants and 6000 yoke of oxen for the transport of the blocks.
Near Baiae was the villa resort of Bauli, so called from the 1 30aata (stalls) in which the oxen of Geryon were' concealed by Hercules.
Iphitus persuaded Hercules to search for Eurytus' lost oxen, but was killed by him at Tiryns in a frenzy.
As patron of maritime adventure (i yee 6vtos) he struggles with Nereus and Triton, slays Eryx and Busiris, and perhaps captures the wild horses and oxen, which may stand for pirates.
Next Spanish hides, with the tails still preserving their twist and the angle of elevation they had when the oxen that wore them were careering over the pampas of the Spanish Main--a type of all obstinacy, and evincing how almost hopeless and incurable are all constitutional vices.
The air is filled with the bleating of calves and sheep, and the hustling of oxen, as if a pastoral valley were going by.
He sawed a channel in the ice toward the shore, and hauled it over and along and out on to the ice with oxen; but, before he had gone far in his work, he was surprised to find that it was wrong end upward, with the stumps of the branches pointing down, and the small end firmly fastened in the sandy bottom.
The landlord found land, labour, oxen for ploughing and working the wateringmachines, carting, threshing or other implements, seed corn, rations for the workmen and fodder for the cattle.
A huge car drawn by oxen, bearing the standard of the burgh, and carrying an altar with the host, this carroccio, like the ark of the Israelites, formed a rallying point in battle, and reminded the armed artisans that they had a city and a church to fight for.
Many millions of sheep and oxen all over the world have thus been treated, and the rate of mortality reduced from io to less than %.
Swine and poultry were used for food to a greater extent than oxen, which were bred chiefly for ploughing.
" In some places," he says, " a horse plough is better," and in others an oxen plough, to which, upon the whole, he gives the preference.
The quantity of digestible nutritive matter in 1000 lb of ordinary feeding-stuffs when supplied to sheep or oxen is shown in Table XIX.
Of late years musk-oxen have been exhibited alive in Europe; and two examples, one of which lived from 1899 till 1903, have been brought to England.
The liver-fluke (Distomum hepaticum) unlike most Trematodes flourishes in a wide range of hosts and infects man, horse, deer, oxen, sheep, pig, rabbit and kangaroo.
Sosens monkeys and badgers constitute the one possible exception, but the horses, oxen, deer, tigers, dogs, bears, foxes and even cats of the best Japanese artists were ill drawn and badly modelled.
YAK, the wild (and domesticated) ox of the Tibetan plateau; a species nearly allied to the bison group. The yak, Bos (POephagus) grunniens, is one of the finest and largest of the wild oxen, characterized by the growth of long shaggy hair on the flanks and under parts of the body and the well-known bushy tail.
The group at the present day is divided into Girafjidae (giraffe and okapi), Cervidae (deer), Antilocapridae (prongbuck), and Bovidae (oxen, sheep, goats, antelopes, &c.).
Thereupon he was sent to tend Amphitryon's oxen, and at this period slew the lion of Mount Cithaeron.
Bringing the oxen of Geryones from Erythia in the far west, which errand involved many adventures in the coast lands of the Mediterranean, and the setting up of the " Pillars of Hercules " at the Straits of Gibraltar.
The light Cape cart is largely used, and the wagon, drawn by a team of oxen, is still employed by farmers to bring their produce to market.
On the second, Anarrhysis (from &vappuecv, to draw back the victim's head), a sacrifice of oxen was offered at the public cost to Zeus Phratrius and Athena.
39), although it is not known whether the term is identical with the more modern sal-ammoniac. In the form of sal-ammoniac, ammonia was known, however, to the alchemists as early as the 13th century, being mentioned by Albertus Magnus, whilst in the 15th century Basil Valentine showed that ammonia could be obtained by the action of alkalies on sal-ammoniac. At a later period when sal-ammoniac was obtained by distilling the hoofs and horns of oxen, and neutralizing the resulting carbonate with hydrochloric acid, the name spirits of hartshorn was applied to ammonia.
(a) Normandy, Perche, Cotentin and maritime Flanders, where horses are bred in great numbers; (b) the strip of coast between the Gironde and the mouth of the Loire; (c) the Morvan including the Nivernais and the Charolais, from which the famous Charolais breed of oxen takes its name; (d) the central region of the central plateau including the districts of Cantal and Aubrac, the home of the famous beef-breeds of Salers and Aubrac.1 The famous pre-sal sheep are also reared in the Vende and Cotentin.
The plain of Toulouse, which with the rest of south-western France produces good draught oxen, the Parisian basin, the plains of the north to the east of the maritime region, the lower valley of the Rhflne and tile Bresse, where there is little or no natural pasturage, and forage is grown from seed.
Where the valley is still cultivated, the jerd, a skin raised by oxen, is gradually being substituted for the naoura, no more of the latter being constructed to take the place of those which fall into decay.
The horned cattle include the humped oxen and buffaloes of India, and the yak of Tibet.
The word " oxen," which occurs in our version of the Scriptures, as well as in the Septuagint and Vulgate, denotes the species, rather than the sex.
The quantity of land ploughed by a yoke of oxen in one day was called a yoke or acre.
Apparently the musk-ox (Ovibos moschatus) has little or no near relationship to either the oxen or the sheep; and it is not improbable that its affinities are with the Asiatic takin (Budorcas) and the extinct European Criotherium of the Pliocene of Samos.
As proved by the discovery of fossil remains, musk-oxen ranged during the Pleistocene period over northern Siberia and the plains of Germany and France, their bones occurring in river-deposits along with those of the reindeer, mammoth, and woolly rhinoceros.
Oxen, sheep, horses and other live-stock introduced from Europe thrive well, but little attention is paid to stock-rearing.
We thus see that the American and the European-Asiatic elements of the flora are nearly equivalent; and if the flora of Arctic North America were better known, the number of plants common to America might be still more enlarged.5 In the south, a few goats, sheep, oxen and pigs have been introduced.
Even so oxen, lions and horses, if they had hands wherewith to grave images, would fashion gods after their own shapes and make them bodies like to their own.
Few oxen or sheep are reared in the colony, meat, as well as bread and most vegetables, being imported from America.
This town is said to have the largest houses for oxen, cows, and horses hereabouts, and it is not behindhand in its public buildings; but there are very few halls for free worship or free speech in this county.
Oxen, sheep, dogs, monkeys, bats, and probably horses also suffer from similar parasitic diseases.